South stony island avenue chicago il


2016.10.18 23:27 chounies #PhillyRoomates4lyfe

Cause we don't spend enough time on reddit.

2023.03.25 21:42 beaverbitch Most of these tickets were bought to resell at a higher price

Most of these tickets were bought to resell at a higher price submitted by beaverbitch to mildlyinfuriating [link] [comments]

2023.03.25 19:39 Head-Tangerine6867 Bruce Finley. He stated he was there on Essex and 78th street when Vito🕊️got shot by Boo🔒. I found out he’s related to No limit EBK Lil Bruce (NLMB), they have the same last name. Bruce Finley, was arrested in 09 after he sold 💊to an undercover officer, and told everything to get a lighter sentence.

Bruce Finley. He stated he was there on Essex and 78th street when Vito🕊️got shot by Boo🔒. I found out he’s related to No limit EBK Lil Bruce (NLMB), they have the same last name. Bruce Finley, was arrested in 09 after he sold 💊to an undercover officer, and told everything to get a lighter sentence. submitted by Head-Tangerine6867 to Chiraqology [link] [comments]

2023.03.25 19:29 SchlesingerMindy323 [HIRING] 25 Jobs in IL Hiring Now!

Company Name Title City
HelioHire Sr. DevOps Engineer Chicago
ABM Facility Services Custodial Position Edwardsville
ABM Facility Services Custodian Edwardsville
ABM Facility Services Custodial Position Troy
Bisco Inside Sales Representative Township Of Schaumburg
Deltrol Fluid Products Set up and operate honing equipment Bellwood
gpm truck center inc Truck Mechanic Crystal Lake
Dr. David Rice Dental Hygienist Elgin
Sharp Auto Body Auto Detailer Island Lake
Anderson Hospital Sonographer Maryville
Anderson Hospital Physical Therapist Maryville
Anderson Hospital RN Maryville
Advanced Moving & Storage OTR - Class A CDL Driver Wood Dale
AT&T Shoe Salesperson Aurora
Mount Carmel Health LPN - Cardiac Progressive Care Unit Aurora
Advanced Technology Services Diemaker Bellwood
Gordon Food Service LTL Driver Bolingbrook
Gordon Food Service Pick Up and Delivery Driver Bolingbrook
Arrowleaf Intake Liaison Cairo
McKesson Warehouse Worker - Full Time Chicago
Year Up Internships in Information Technology (IT) Chicago
Year Up Entry - level Software Development Role Chicago
Cielo Williams Lea Group Ltd Hybrid Billing Analyst Chicago
Wendy's Grill Operator - Wendy's $16-$35/hr Chicago
Gulfstream Logistics Full Charge Bookkeeper Des Plaines
Hey guys, here are some recent job openings in il. Feel free to comment here or send me a private message if you have any questions, I'm at the community's disposal! If you encounter any problems with any of these job openings please let me know that I will modify the table accordingly. Thanks!
submitted by SchlesingerMindy323 to ILJobsForAll [link] [comments]

2023.03.25 18:51 B_Secreto_Azteca ¿Crees que el amor no es para ti? Soy tu hechicero ancestral y con mi ayuda encontrarás a tu alma gemela ¡Contáctame ya!

¿Crees que el amor no es para ti? Soy tu hechicero ancestral y con mi ayuda encontrarás a tu alma gemela ¡Contáctame ya!

La espera puede ser una de las experiencias más desgastantes y estresantes que podemos experimentar. Ya sea que estés esperando una respuesta de amor, un trabajo o un asunto importante en tu vida, puede ser difícil lidiar con la incertidumbre. Si te sientes agobiado por la espera de un sí por parte de esa persona que quieres, no tienes que seguir sufriendo en silencio. Soy tu brujo de confianza y estoy aquí para ayudarte a encontrar la solución que necesitas. Todo esto gracias a mis amarres con foto Chicago, el cual consiste en solo tener una fotografía de esa persona que deseas tener y con un ritual ella te dará el sí que has estado esperando.
A veces, la espera puede parecer interminable y puede hacernos sentir atrapados en un ciclo de ansiedad y estrés. Pero no tienes que seguir en ese estado emocional. Como el mejor brujo de toda la ciudad de Chicago, puedo ayudarte a romper ese ciclo y encontrar la respuesta que buscas. Juntos podemos trabajar para liberarte de la tensión emocional y llevar la solución que te permitirá avanzar en tu vida. Solo debes tener mucha fe para que estos rituales funcionen a la perfección.
Si te vuelven loco esperando un "sí", es hora de poner fin a esa espera. Como tu brujo ancestral, puedo ayudarte a encontrar el camino hacia la solución que necesitas. No tienes que seguir sufriendo y sintiéndote atrapado. Juntos podemos encontrar la respuesta que estás buscando y liberarte de la incertidumbre que te hace sentir tan abrumado. No le des más espera a eso que tanto deseas y acude a mi botánica en: 2415 South Kedzie. Chicago, IL donde poseo los rituales adecuados para ti.
No importa cuál sea tu situación, si estás esperando una respuesta importante, puedes contar conmigo para ayudarte a encontrar la solución que necesitas. Con mi guía y sabiduría ancestral, podemos trabajar juntos para superar la incertidumbre y encontrar la respuesta que te permitirá avanzar en la vida con confianza y seguridad. ¡Amarra ya! Y comienza a tomar el control de tu vida y tu futuro. Lo que debes hacer es comunicarte conmigo al: (+1) (773) 499-6998 para solicitar mis poderosos amarres de amor Chicago. ¡No te arrepentirás!
submitted by B_Secreto_Azteca to u/B_Secreto_Azteca [link] [comments]

2023.03.25 17:22 anxious_onion WAMC: 3.787 GPA, 514 MCAT, ORM

  1. cGPA and sGPA as calculated by AMCAS or AACOMAS: 3.784 cGPA, 3.730 sGPA
  2. MCAT score(s) and breakdown: Second attempt - 514 (128/126/128/132), First attempt - 503 (126/127/124/126)
  3. State of residence or country of citizenship (if non-US): PA
  4. Ethnicity and/or race: Asian; from a small country in Asia; immigrated to the US at age 9
  5. Undergraduate institution or category: University of Pittsburgh
  6. Clinical experience (volunteer and non-volunteer): 350 hours working as a medical assistant; 70 hours volunteering in the hospital
  7. Research experience and productivity: 650 hours in a clinical lab in undergrad with a mid-author pub in a decent journal (socioeconomic research in patients); 150 hours in a basic science lab in undergrad (animal research); 600 hours in another basic science lab in undergrad with a poster-presentation at my uni (animal research); 2100 hours in a clinical lab in my gap year and 2100 more anticipated during gap year #2 so 4200 total with 2 oral presentations, 1 poster, and 1 mid-author pub in a great journal (patient research)
  8. Shadowing experience and specialties represented: 50 hours of shadowing family med, psychiatry, cardiology, dermatology, and otolaryngology (35 complete and 15 more anticipated)
  9. Non-clinical volunteering: 1000 hours of covid relief to marginalized communities
  10. Other extracurricular activities (including athletics, military service, gap year activities, leadership, teaching, etc): Undergrad teaching assistant for bio (120 hours) and for organic chem (120 hours); resident assistant for 1 year (300 hours); started a prehealth club at my uni (300 hours)
  11. Relevant honors or awards: summa cum laude (GPA of 3.75 or above), departmental honors, a team award for research, and a travel grant for an oral presentation, dean's list as a sophomore - senior
  12. Anything else not listed you think might be important: refugee background; did random job after HS (not sure whether to include in application); hobbies include photo/videography singing, creative writing; got my emt certification before I did the MA job; LORs should be pretty good (from gap year physician supervisor, 2 science profs; 1 extracurricular supervisor; looking to get 1 from non science prof too); DREAM SCHOOL IS MY ALMA MATER***
School list so far (I know there are a lot which is why I need help narrowing it down):
Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Bronx, NY)
Boston University School of Medicine (Boston, MA)
Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine (Cleveland, OH)
Drexel University College of Medicine (Philadelphia, PA)
Duke University School of Medicine (Durham, NC)
Emory University School of Medicine (Atlanta, GA)
Florida Atlantic University Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine (Boca Raton, FL)
Geisinger Commonwealth Medical College (Scranton, PA)
George Washington University School of Medicine (Washington, D.C.)
Georgetown University School of Medicine (Washington, D.C.)
Hacksensack Meridian School of Medicine (Nutley, NJ)
Hofstra University Zucker School of Medicine (Hempstead, NY)
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (New York, NY)
Indiana University School of Medicine (Indianapolis, IN)
Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine (Maywood, IL)
Mayo Clinic School of Medicine (Rochester, MN)
Mayo Clinic School of Medicine (Scottsdale, AZ)
Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI)
North Dakota School of Medicine (Grand Forks, ND)
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine (Chicago, IL)
Nova Southeastern University College of Allopathic Medicine (Davie, FL)
Ohio State University School of Medicine (Columbus, OH)
Penn State University College of Medicine (Hummelstown, PA)
Quinnipiac University School of Medicine (Hamden, CT)
Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine (North Chicago, IL)
Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (New Brunswick, NJ)
Saint Louis University School of Medicine (St. Louis, MO)
Stanford School of Medicine (Stanford, CA)
Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine (Philadelphia, PA)
Thomas Jefferson University Sidney Kimmel Medical College (Philadelphia, PA)
Tufts University School of Medicine (Boston, MA)
Tulane University School of Medicine (New Orleans, LA)
UC San Diego School of Medicine (San Diego, CA)
UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine (Los Angeles, CA)
UCSF School of Medicine (San Francisco, CA)
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (Bethesda, MD)
University of Alabama School of Medicine (Birmingham, AL)
University of Arizona College of Medicine Phoenix (Phoenix, AZ)
University of Cincinnati College of Medicine (Cincinnati, OH)
University of Colorado School of Medicine (Aurora, CO)
University of Connecticut School of Medicine (Farmington, CT)
University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine (Iowa City, IA)
University of Michigan Medical School (Ann Arbor, MI)
University of Minnesota Medical School (Minneapolis, MN)
University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine (Philadelphia, PA)
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine (Pittsburgh, PA)
University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine (Tampa, FL)
University of Toledo College of Medicine (Toledo, OH)
University of Utah School of Medicine (Salt Lake City, UT)
University of Vermont College of Medicine (Burlington, VT)
University of Virginia School of Medicine (Charlottesville, VA)
USC Keck School of Medicine (Los Angeles, CA)
Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine (Richmond, VA)
Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine (Roanoke, VA)
Wake Forest University School of Medicine (Winston-Salem, NC)
West Virginia University School of Medicine (Morgantown, WV)
Western Michigan Homer Stryker School of Medicine (Kalamazoo, MI)
Wright State Boonshoft School of Medicine (Dayton, OH)
submitted by anxious_onion to premed [link] [comments]

2023.03.25 17:21 FitInvestigator5945 SATIRE RESEARCH

1599 book ban
In 1599, the Archbishop of Canterbury John Whitgift and the Bishop of London Richard Bancroft, whose offices had the function of licensing books for publication in England, issued a decree banning verse satire. The decree, now known as the Bishops' Ban of 1599, ordered the burning of certain volumes of satire by John Marston, Thomas Middleton, Joseph Hall, and others; it also required histories and plays to be specially approved by a member of the Queen's Privy Council, and it prohibited the future printing of satire in verse.[138]

The motives for the ban are obscure, particularly since some of the books banned had been licensed by the same authorities less than a year earlier. Various scholars have argued that the target was obscenity, libel, or sedition. It seems likely that lingering anxiety about the Martin Marprelate controversy, in which the bishops themselves had employed satirists, played a role; both Thomas Nashe and Gabriel Harvey, two of the key figures in that controversy, suffered a complete ban on all their works. In the event, though, the ban was little enforced, even by the licensing authority itself.

21st-century polemics
In 2005, the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy caused global protests by offended Muslims and violent attacks with many fatalities in the Near East. It was not the first case of Muslim protests against criticism in the form of satire, but the Western world was surprised by the hostility of the reaction: Any country's flag in which a newspaper chose to publish the parodies was being burnt in a Near East country, then embassies were attacked, killing 139 people in mainly four countries; politicians throughout Europe agreed that satire was an aspect of the freedom of speech, and therefore to be a protected means of dialogue. Iran threatened to start an International Holocaust Cartoon Competition, which was immediately responded to by Jews with an Israeli Anti-Semitic Cartoons Contest.

In 2006 British comedian Sacha Baron Cohen released Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan, a "mockumentary" that satirized everyone, from high society to frat boys. The film was criticized by many. Although Baron Cohen is Jewish, some complained that it was antisemitic, and the government of Kazakhstan boycotted the film. The film itself had been a reaction to a longer quarrel between the government and the comedian.

In 2008, popular South African cartoonist and satirist Jonathan Shapiro (who is published under the pen name Zapiro) came under fire for depicting then-president of the ANC Jacob Zuma in the act of undressing in preparation for the implied rape of 'Lady Justice' which is held down by Zuma loyalists.[139] The cartoon was drawn in response to Zuma's efforts to duck corruption charges, and the controversy was heightened by the fact that Zuma was himself acquitted of rape in May 2006. In February 2009, the South African Broadcasting Corporation, viewed by some opposition parties as the mouthpiece of the governing ANC,[140] shelved a satirical TV show created by Shapiro,[141] and in May 2009 the broadcaster pulled a documentary about political satire (featuring Shapiro among others) for the second time, hours before scheduled broadcast.[142] Apartheid South Africa also had a long history of censorship.

On December 29, 2009, Samsung sued Mike Breen, and the Korea Times for $1 million, claiming criminal defamation over a satirical column published on Christmas Day, 2009.[143][144]

On April 29, 2015, the UK Independence Party (UKIP) requested Kent Police investigate the BBC, claiming that comments made about Party leader Nigel Farage by a panelist on the comedy show Have I Got News For You might hinder his chances of success in the general election (which would take place a week later), and claimed the BBC breached the Representation of the People Act.[145] Kent Police rebuffed the request to open an investigation, and the BBC released a statement, "Britain has a proud tradition of satire, and everyone knows that the contributors on Have I Got News for You regularly make jokes at the expense of politicians of all parties."[145]

Satirical prophecy
Satire is occasionally prophetic: the jokes precede actual events.[146][147] Among the eminent examples are:

The 1784 presaging of modern daylight saving time, later actually proposed in 1907. While an American envoy to France, Benjamin Franklin anonymously published a letter in 1784 suggesting that Parisians economise on candles by arising earlier to use morning sunlight.[148]
In the 1920s, an English cartoonist imagined a laughable thing for the time: a hotel for cars. He drew a multi-story car park.[147]
The second episode of Monty Python's Flying Circus, which debuted in 1969, featured a sketch entitled "The Mouse Problem" (meant to satirize contemporary media exposés on homosexuality), which depicted a cultural phenomenon similar to some aspects of the modern furry fandom (which did not become widespread until the 1980s, over a decade after the sketch was first aired).
The comedy film Americathon, released in 1979 and set in the United States of 1998, predicted a number of trends and events that would eventually unfold in the near future, including an American debt crisis, Chinese capitalism, the fall of the Soviet Union, terrorism aimed at the civilian population, a presidential sex scandal, and the popularity of reality shows.
In January 2001, a satirical news article in The Onion, entitled "Our Long National Nightmare of Peace and Prosperity Is Finally Over"[149] had newly elected President George Bush vowing to "develop new and expensive weapons technologies" and to "engage in at least one Gulf War-level armed conflict in the next four years". Furthermore, he would "bring back economic stagnation by implementing substantial tax cuts, which would lead to a recession". This prophesied the Iraq War, the Bush tax cuts, and the Great Recession.
In 1975, the first episode of Saturday Night Live included an ad for a triple blade razor called the Triple-Trac; in 2001, Gillette introduced the Mach3. In 2004, The Onion satirized Schick and Gillette's marketing of ever-increasingly multi-blade razors with a mock article proclaiming Gillette will now introduce a five-blade razor.[150] In 2006, Gillette released the Gillette Fusion, a five-blade razor.
After the Iran nuclear deal in 2015, The Onion ran an article with the headline "U.S. Soothes Upset Netanyahu With Shipment Of Ballistic Missiles". Sure enough, reports broke the next day of the Obama administration offering military upgrades to Israel in the wake of the deal.[151]
In July 2016, The Simpsons released the most recent in a string of satirical references to a potential Donald Trump presidency (although the first was made back in a 2000 episode.) Other media sources, including the popular film Back to the Future Part II have also made similar satirical references.[152]
Satire celebration
In June 2019, Punocracy, Nigeria's foremost satire platform organised a nationwide writing competition for youth in the country with the objective to make satire a widely accepted and understood tool of socio-political commentary.[153] Some of the entries addressed issues like gender violence, political corruption, religious hypocrisy, internet fraud, educational decay and so on.[154] The group also declared November 9 as World Satire Day with the idea of "trying to fight against the ills in the society not by ammunition but by humour, sarcasm etcetera".[155]

See also
Cringe comedy
Culture jamming
Freedom of the press
List of satirists and satires
News satire
Onomasti komodein
Parody religion
Satiric misspellings
Satires (disambiguation)
The Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London, the censors of the press, issued Orders to the Stationers' Company on June 1 and 4, 1599, prohibiting the further printing of satires—the so-called 'Bishop's Ban'.[85][page needed]
Elliott 2004.
Frye, Northrup (1957). Anatomy of Criticism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. p. 222. ISBN 0-691-06004-5.
Claridge, Claudia (2010) Hyperbole in English: A Corpus-based Study of Exaggeration p.257
Kharpertian, Theodore D (1990), "Thomas Pynchon and Postmodern American Satire", in Kharpertian (ed.), A hand to turn the time: the Menippean satires of Thomas Pynchon, pp. 25–7, ISBN 9780838633618
Branham 1997, p. xxiv.
Ullman, BL (1913), "Satura and Satire", Classical Philology, 8 (2): 172–194, doi:10.1086/359771, JSTOR 262450, The Renaissance confusion of the two origins encouraged a satire more aggressive than that of its Roman forebearers
Antonia Szabari (2009) Less Rightly Said: Scandals and Readers in Sixteenth-Century France p.2
"Forecast". Galaxy Science Fiction. June 1968. p. 113.
Corum 2002, p. 175.
"Ig", Improbable
Rosenberg, Harold (1960), "Community, Values, Comedy", Commentary, The American Jewish Committee, 30: 155, the oldest form of social study is comedy... If the comedian, from Aristophanes to Joyce, does not solve sociology's problem of "the participant observer", he does demonstrate his objectivity by capturing behavior in its most intimate aspects yet in its widest typicality. Comic irony sets whole cultures side by side in a multiple exposure (e.g., Don Quixote, Ulysses), causing valuation to spring out of the recital of facts alone, in contrast to the hidden editorializing of tongue-in-cheek ideologists.
Deloria, Vine (1969), "Indian humor", Custer Died For Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto, p. 146, Irony and satire provide much keener insights into a group's collective psyche and values than do years of [conventional] research as quoted in Ryan, Allan J (1999), The trickster shift: humour and irony in contemporary native art, p. 9, ISBN 9780774807043
Nash, Roderick Frazier (1970), "21. The New Humor", The Call of the Wild: 1900–1916, p. 203, Humor is one of the best indicators of popular thought. To ask what strikes a period as funny is to probe its deepest values and tastes.
Babcock, Barbara A. (1984), "Arrange Me Into Disorder: Fragments and Reflections on Ritual Clowning", in MacAloon (ed.), Rite, Drama, Festival, Spectacle. Also collected as Babcock, Barbara A Grimes (1996), Ronald, L (ed.), Readings in ritual studies, p. 5, Harold Rosenberg has asserted that sociology needs to bring comedy into the foreground, including "an awareness of the comedy of sociology with its disguises", and, like Burke and Duncan, he has argued that comedy provides "the radical effect of self- knowledge which the anthropological bias excludes.
Coppola, Jo (1958), "An Angry Young Magazine ...", The Realist (1), Good comedy is social criticism—although you might find that hard to believe if all you ever saw were some of the so-called clowns of videoland.... Comedy is dying today because criticism is on its deathbed... because telecasters, frightened by the threats and pressure of sponsors, blacklists and viewers, helped introduce conformity to this age... In such a climate, comedy cannot flourish. For comedy is, after all, a look at ourselves, not as we pretend to be when we look in the mirror of our imagination, but as we really are. Look at the comedy of any age and you will know volumes about that period and its people which neither historian nor anthropologist can tell you.
Coppola, Jo (December 12, 1958). Comedy on Television. Commonweal. p. 288.
Willi, Andreas (2003), The Languages of Aristophanes: Aspects of Linguistic Variation in Classical Attic Greek, Oxford University Press, pp. 1–2, ISBN 9780199262649
Ehrenberg, Victor (1962), The people of Aristophanes: a sociology of old Attic comedy, p. 39
Bevere, Antonio and Cerri, Augusto (2006) Il Diritto di informazione e i diritti della persona pp.265–6 quotation:
nella storia della nostra cultura, la satira ha realizzato il bisogno popolare di irridere e dissacrare il gotha politico ed economico, le cui reazioni punitive non sono certo state condizionate da critiche estetiche, ma dalla tolleranza o intolleranza caratterizzanti in quel momento storico la società e i suoi governanti. (...) la reale esistenza della satira in una società deriva, (...) dal margine di tolleranza espresso dai poteri punitivi dello Stato.

Amy Wiese Forbes (2010) The Satiric Decade: Satire and the Rise of Republicanism in France, 1830–1840 p.xv, quotation:
a critical public discourse (...) Satire rose the daunting question of what role public opinion would play in government. (...) satirists criticized government activities, exposed ambiguities, and forced administrators to clarify or establish policies. Not surprisingly, heated public controversy surrounded satiric commentary, resulting in an outright ban on political satire in 1835 (...) Government officials cracked down on their humorous public criticism that challenged state authority through both its form and content. Satire had been a political resource in France for a long time, but the anxious political context of the July Monarchy had unlocked its political power. Satire also taught lessons in democracy. It fit into the July Monarchy's tense political context as a voice in favor of public political debate. Satiric expression took place in the public sphere and spoke from a position of public opinion-that is, from a position of the nation’s expressing a political voice and making claims on its government representatives and leadership. Beyond mere entertainment, satire's humor appealed to and exercised public opinion, drawing audiences into new practices of representative government.

Knight, Charles A. (2004) Literature of Satire p.254
Test (1991) p.9 quotation:
A surprising variety of societies have allowed certain persons the freedom to mock other individuals and social institutions in rituals. From the earliest times the same freedom has been claimed by and granted to social groups at certain times of the year, as can be seen in such festivals as the Saturnalia, the Feast of Fools, Carnival, and similar folk festivals in India, nineteenth-century Newfoundland, and the ancient Mediterranean world.

Test (1991) pp.8–9
Cazeneuve (1957) p.244-5 quotation:
Ils constituent donc pour la tribu un moyen de donner une satisfaction symbolique aux tendances anti-sociales. Les Zunis, précisément parce qu'ils sont un peuple apollinien [où la règle prédomine], avaient besoin de cette soupape de sûreté. Les Koyemshis représentent ce que M. Caillois nomme le « Sacré de transgression ».

Durand (1984) p.106 quotation:
Déjà Cazeneuve (2) [Les dieux dansent à Cibola] avait mis auparavant en relief, dans la Société « apollinienne » des Zuñi, l'institution et le symbolisme saturnal des clowns Koyemshis, véritable soupape de sûreté « dionysienne ».

Yatsko, V, Russian folk funny stories
Corum (2002) p.163
David Worcester (1968) The Art of Satire p.16
Müller, Rolf Arnold (1973). Komik und Satire (in German). Zürich: Juris-Verlag. p. 92. ISBN 978-3-260-03570-8.
"What Is Horatian Satire?". wiseGEEK.
"Satire Terms".
Sharma, Raja (2011). "Comedy" in New Light-Literary Studies.
Patricia, Green. "The Golden Age of Satire: Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift" (PDF).
"What Is Juvenalian Satire?". wiseGEEK.
"Satire Examples and Definition". Literary Devices.
"Satire in Literature: Definition, Types & Examples". Education Portal.
Fo (1990) p.9 quotation:
Nella storia del teatro si ritrova sempre questo conflitto in cui si scontrano impegno e disimpegno ... grottesco, satirico e lazzo con sfottò. E spesso vince lo sfotto. tanto amato dal potere. Quando si dice che il potere ama la satira

Eastman, Max (1936), "IV. Degrees of Biting", Enjoyment of Laughter, pp. 236–43
Fo, Dario; Lorch, Jennifer (1997), Dario Fo, p. 128, ISBN 9780719038488, In other writings Fo makes an important distinction between sfottò and satire.
Fo (1990) pp.2–3
... Una caricatura che, è ovvio, risulta del tutto bonaria, del tutto epidermica, che indica, come dicevo prima, soltanto la parte più esteriore del loro carattere, i tic la cui messa in risalto non lede assolutamente l'operato, l'ideologia, la morale e la dimensione culturale di questi personaggi. ... ricordando che i politici provano un enorme piacere nel sentirsi presi in giro; è quasi un premio che si elargisce loro, nel momento stesso in cui li si sceglie per essere sottoposti alla caricatura, a quella caricatura. ... Di fatto questa è una forma di comicità che non si può chiamare satira, ma solo sfottò. ... Pensa quanti pretesti satirici si offrirebbero se solo quei comici del "Biberon" volessero prendere in esame il modo in cui questi personaggi gestiscono il potere e lo mantengono, o si decidessero a gettare l'occhio sulle vere magagne di questa gente, le loro violenze più o meno mascherate, le loro arroganze e soprattutto le loro ipocrisie. ...un teatro cabaret capostipite: il Bagaglino, un teatro romano che, già vent'anni fa, si metteva in una bella chiave politica dichiaratamente di estrema destra, destra spudoratamente reazionaria, scopertamente fascista. Nelle pieghe del gruppo del Bagaglino e del suo lavoro c'era sempre la caricatura feroce dell'operaio, del sindacalista, del comunista, dell'uomo di sinistra, e una caricatura bonacciona invece, e ammiccante, accattivante, degli uomini e della cultura al potere

Fo (1990) quotation:
L'ironia fatta sui tic, sulla caricatura dei connotati più o meno grotteschi dei politici presi di mira, dei loro eventuali difetti fisici, della loro particolare pronuncia, dei loro vezzi, del loro modo di vestire, del loro modo di camminare, delle frasi tipiche che vanno ripetendo. ...[lo sfottò è] una chiave buffonesca molto antica, che viene di lontano, quella di giocherellare con gli attributi esteriori e non toccare mai il problema di fondo di una critica seria che è l'analisi messa in grottesco del comportamento, la valutazione ironica della posizione, dell'ideologia del personaggio.

[page needed]
Arroyo, José Luís Blas; Casanova, Mónica Velando (2006), Discurso y sociedad: contribuciones al estudio de la lengua en..., 1, pp. 303–4, ISBN 9788480215381
Morson, Gary Saul (1988), Boundaries of Genre, p. 114, ISBN 9780810108110, second, that parodies can be, as Bakhtin observes, "shallow" as well as "deep" (Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics, 160), which is to say, directed at superficial as well as fundamental faults of the original. [...] the distinction between shallow and deep [...] [is] helpful in understanding the complex ways in which parodies are used. For instance, shallow parody is sometimes used to pay an author an indirect compliment. The opposite of damning with faint praise, this parody with faint criticism may be designed to show that no more fundamental criticism could be made.
Luttazzi, Daniele (2005), Matrix, IT, archived from the original on December 25, 2005, Dario Fo disse a Satyricon: —La satira vera si vede dalla reazione che suscita.
Luttazzi, Daniele (October 2003), Fracassi, Federica; Guerriero, Jacopo (eds.), "State a casa a fare i compiti" (interview), Nazione Indiana (in Italian), Lo sfottò è reazionario. Non cambia le carte in tavola, anzi, rende simpatica la persona presa di mira. La Russa, oggi, è quel personaggio simpatico, con la voce cavernosa, il doppiatore dei Simpson di cui Fiorello fa l’imitazione. Nessuno ricorda più il La Russa picchiatore fascista. Nessuno ricorda gli atti fascisti e reazionari di questo governo in televisione.
Kremer, S Lillian (2003), Holocaust Literature: Agosín to Lentin, p. 100, ISBN 9780415929837
Lipman, Stephen ‘Steve’ (1991), Laughter in hell: the use of humour during the Holocaust, Northvale, NJ: J Aronson, p. 40
Clark (1991) pp.116–8 quotation:
...religion, politics, and sexuality are the primary stuff of literary satire. Among these sacret targets, matters costive and defecatory play an important part. ... from the earliest times, satirists have utilized scatological and bathroom humor. Aristophanes, always livid and nearly scandalous in his religious, political, and sexual references...

Clark, John R; Motto, Anna Lydia (1973), Satire–that blasted art, p. 20
Clark, John R; Motto, Anna Lydia (1980), "Menippeans & Their Satire: Concerning Monstrous Leamed Old Dogs and Hippocentaurs", Scholia Satyrica, 6 (3/4): 45, [Chapple's book Soviet satire of the twenties]... classifying the very topics his satirists satirized: housing, food, and fuel supplies, poverty, inflation, "hooliganism", public services, religion, stereotypes of nationals (the Englishman, German, &c), &c. Yet the truth of the matter is that no satirist worth his salt (Petronius, Chaucer, Rabelais, Swift, Leskov, Grass) ever avoids man's habits and living standards, or scants those delicate desiderata: religion, politics, and sex.
Ferdie Addis (2012) Qual è il tuo "tallone da killer"? p.20
Hodgart (2009) ch 2 The topics of satire: politics p.33
The most pressing of the problems that face us when we close the book or leave the theatre are ultimately political ones; and so politics is the pre-eminent topic of satire. some degree public affairs vex every man, if he pays taxes, does military service or even objects to the way his neighbour is behaving. There is no escape from politics where more than a dozen people are living together.
There is an essential connection between satire and politics in the widest sense: satire is not only the commonest form of political literature, but, insofar as it tries to influence public behaviours, it is the most political part of all literature.

Satire lies about literary men while they live and eulogy lies about them when they die.

Satire is traditionally the weapon of the powerless against the powerful.

Molly Ivins
Comedy has to be done en clair. You can't blunt the edge of wit or the point of satire with obscurity. Try to imagine a famous witty saying that is not immediately clear.

James Thurber
The satirist who writes nothing but satire should write but little - or it will seem that his satire springs rather from his own caustic nature than from the sins of the world in which he lives.

Anthony Trollope
Praise undeserved, is satire in disguise.

Alexander Pope

Satire is tragedy plus time. You give it enough time, the public, the reviewers will allow you to satirize it. Which is rather ridiculous, when you think about it.

Lenny Bruce
Satire doesn't effect change.

P. J. O'Rourke
I only aim at the powerful. When satire is aimed at the powerless, it is not only cruel - it's vulgar.

Molly Ivins
Rush Limbaugh's pathetic abuse of logic, his absurd pomposity, his relentless self-promotion, his ridiculous ego - now those, friends, are appropriate targets for satire.

Molly Ivins
Satire is a weapon, and it can be quite cruel.

Molly Ivins
You can't debate satire. Either you get it or you don't.

Michael Moore
It's a great time to be doing political satire when the world is on a knife edge.

John Oliver
When satire is aimed at the powerless, it is not only cruel - it's vulgar.

Molly Ivins
Status is always ripe for satire, status is always good for comedy.

Stephen Colbert
I started off at the Second City in Chicago... It's an improvisational theater that ostensibly does social and political satire, but when I was there, we generally didn't. We did character work, and we did just the silliest things we could think of. We weren't all that concerned with, you know, changing the world through mime.

Stephen Colbert
I'm a satirist, so I've got boxing gloves on if the person is worthy of satire. But I'm not an assassin. If that ever happens, it's only because something happened during the interview that got me going, and then I had to translate my feelings to the mouth of the character.

Stephen Colbert
I have never knowingly, I swear to God, written satire. The word connotes exaggeration of the foibles of mankind. To me, mankind just has foibles. You don't have to push it!

Tom Wolfe
We never dealt with satire or suggestive material. Although some of our films were broad parodies or burlesques of popular dramatic themes, there was no conscious attempt at being either sarcastic or offensive.

Stan Laurel
If you're going to give people 20 minutes of news satire, you've also got to give them Tiffani-Amber Thiessen or you're going to have rioting in the streets.

Jon Stewart
The satirist who writes nothing but satire should write but little - or it will seem that his satire springs rather from his own caustic nature than from the sins of the world in which he lives.

Anthony Trollope
When I started performing, there was no Internet; I didn't really have anything to copy. I kind of had to just make up what I thought burlesque was, based on photographs of Sally Rand or whatever.

Dita Von Teese
The difference between burlesque and the newspapers is that the former never pretended to be performing a public service by exposure.

I. F. Stone
You know what my earliest memories are? Going from one burlesque town to another. My father was in burlesque.

Alan Alda
Every one of my products - my lingerie, my perfume, and everything that I do beauty-related with regard to building my burlesque shows - is just me.

Dita Von Teese
The silent film has a lot of meanings. The first part of the film is comic. It represents the burlesque feel of those silent films. But I think that the second part of the film is full of tenderness and emotion.

Pedro Almodovar
Me personally, I want to entertain people above all. When you look back at burlesque in history and the real golden age of burlesque, those entertainers were there to entertain, and there wasn't usually some big political message behind what they were doing.

Dita Von Teese
Bip is the romantic and burlesque hero for our time. Bip is a modern-day Don Quixote.

Marcel Marceau
In the early '90s, it was grunge; everybody was fully clothed. Alanis Morissette was one of the biggest artists in the world, never wore makeup, wearing Doc Marten boots, and then the Spice Girls turn up, and suddenly it all looks a bit burlesque; suddenly they're the biggest band in the world.

Caitlin Moran
I don't think there is such a thing as being too raunchy when it comes to the art form of burlesque.

Christina Aguilera
Objectivity is almost a choice you make. As a burlesque performer, I didn't choose to be objectified.

Esme Bianco
Burlesque girls were alchemists. They were steel-tough performers who were willing to use kitchens as dressing rooms, haul their costume bags through the snow, and go into debt over fake diamonds, all for the five minutes onstage when they were goddesses.

Molly Crabapple
I was performing in this burlesque group, and we would go to dance rehearsals every day. You'd use every part of your body. Even though some of it is slow, it takes a lot of muscle to be able to dip down and come back up.

Carmen Electra
Burlesque dancing didn't solve all my post-divorce problems, but what it did do was force me to court myself for a little while.

Emily V. Gordon
Some of the pictures I must say every now and then I just think are going to be funny. When it gets that much, you might as well just pull out all the stops and make it more of a burlesque.

Martin Mull
The human comedy is always tragic, but since its ingredients are always the same - dupe, fox, straight, like burlesque skits - the repetition through the ages is comedy.

Dawn Powell
I've always had a love affair with New York City, and I've threatened to get an apartment there one day. But it just made sense for me to set 'Burlesque' on the Sunset Strip in Los Angeles. It's a place I know intimately well and love, and I think there's a great story to be told with L.A.

Steve Antin
submitted by FitInvestigator5945 to DXYRSISPOT [link] [comments]

2023.03.25 15:28 angstyautocrat This is the state of resale tickets for the Chicago show less than 24hrs after tickets first went on sale. Scalpers/speculators are allowed to buy up all the tickets because Ticketmaster keeps taking a fee on every resale (maybe the artist too?).

This is the state of resale tickets for the Chicago show less than 24hrs after tickets first went on sale. Scalpers/speculators are allowed to buy up all the tickets because Ticketmaster keeps taking a fee on every resale (maybe the artist too?).
This is the Wolf of Wall Street strategy applied to concerts. Instead of the price of a stock, it's the price of resale tickets that doesn't matter to Ticketmaster. They only care about the volume of transactions that go through their platform. Every transaction bags them a fee.
submitted by angstyautocrat to Hozier [link] [comments]

2023.03.25 14:47 DerSaltman Outjerked by the Hoi4 community

Outjerked by the Hoi4 community submitted by DerSaltman to mapporncirclejerk [link] [comments]

2023.03.25 13:53 Hot_Bet_7894 The Honoured Society

The influence of Italian families and syndicates affiliated with organised crime is said to have been entrenched in the underworld of Australia's east coast since the 1930's.
The Australian based group of Mafia-style Italian criminals is known as the Honoured Society.
Other names bestowed on them have included the 'Black Hand'.
In Calabrian parlance, the Honoured Society was referred to as L'Onorata or N'Dranghita.
Mob related extortion in Queenslands cane fields in the 1930's is generally seen as the birth of Mafia style corruption in Australia.
Within the fruit and vegetable industry, Calabrian immigrants had received considerable assistance from the Honoured Society. In turn they were indebted, often for life.
While drugs, particularly marijuana, have become a huge money spinner for the Society, its role in primary production is very strong.
Society members have been able to use their agricultural skills to grow crops as well as using their place in the fruit and vegetable industry to transport and distribute the drug.
In Victoria, the Society moved heavily into the production and distribution of fruit and vegetables.
The Society had the huge Queen Victoria Market, known as the "Melbourne Market", sown up.
Outsiders had very little chance of getting a in whole those of Calabrian, and more generally, Italian extraction were given help getting started, provided they obeyed the Society's rules.
American organised crime investigator John. T. Cusack was summoned to Australia by local police to see if he could help them improve their insight into the Honoured society.
Before returning to the US on August 11, 1964, he reported, among other things, that there were five established rules within the Society.
Aid was to be extended to a member no matter what the circumstances.
There was to be absolute obedience to the officers of the society.
An offence against an an individual member was an attack on the Society and must be avenged.
No member will turn to a government agency for justice.
Omerta, the code of silence, must always be obeyed. No member was to reveal any of the organisations secrets. 'They realise in silence there is security while testimony against a Society member can bring death', Cusack said.
Domenico Italiano (Godfather died December 1962) Domenico was known as 'Il Papa', or 'the Pope' and was the Godfather of Melbourne's Honoured Society.
He was the father in law of notorious hit-man, Michele Scriva, Vincenzo Muratore was his trusted lieutenant and Antonio Barbara, his right hand man.
Domenico Italiano died peacefully of old age in his West Melbourne home in December 1962.
His funeral was held at St. Mary's Star, of the Sea.
Antonio Barbara (Died 1963) 'The Toad', as Antonio Barbara was known, had served five years jail for killing a woman near Queen Victoria market in 1936. Soon after the December 1962 death of Domenico Italiano, Barbara, another senior member of the society died.
He was Italiano's right hand man and was well known for violence.
His death, on the heels of Italiano's, left a huge hole in the upper echelons of the Honoured Society.
Vincenzo Angiletta (Shot dead April 1963) Angiletta was a gunman who migrated to Australia in 1951.
He became a producer of fruit and vegetables for the Society.
Angiletta wanted the Society to be like the Sicilian Mafia in the United States and called for extortion rackets to include non- Italians.
This was rejected by Domenico Demarte (below) and other Society elders.
Angiletta reacted to this snub by refusing to sell his produce to designated wholesalers and going direct to the public. He was warned but refused to conform.
Angiletta was stabbed once on Society orders but still refused to return to the fold. He was then kidnapped and covered in excrement at Woodend.
He vowed revenge and began his own group called La Bastarda- the Bastard Society and recruited 300 members.
Angiletta sold his market garden in Kew to a Greek family rather than a designated Calabrian Family. It is believed that Angiletta then became a marked man and he carrying a pistol.
In the early hours of April 4, 1963, Angiletta, by then employed as a cleaner, was hit twice in the head by shotgun fire as he parked his car in the garage of his Stafford Street, Northcote home at 2.30am.
Friends of Angletta blamed Demarte and Vincenzo Muratore.
Domenico Demarte (Shot November 1963) In 1963, Demarte became head of the Society after Domenico Italliano died. Demarte, notorious hitman Michele Scriva and Domenico Pezzimenti were charged with the murder of Giuseppe "Fat Joe" Versace in what was probably Victoria's first Mafia hit.
Versace was stabbed 91 times in Fitzroy.
The trio were acquitted.
A market commission agent, Demarte experienced problems when a rival faction emerged within the Society.
This was led by Vincenzo Angiletta who was shot dead soon after.
A close associate of Liborio Benvenuto's, Rosario "Ross" Gangemi served alongside Liborio Benvenuto from the 1960s to the 1980s, possibly as his deputy.
He was named by Italian police as ordering the Angiletta murder.
Among the international experts brought to Victoria to help investigate the killings was Italian police assistant commissioner Dr Ugo Macera.
He produced a still-secret report implicating Gangemi in the death of Angilletta.
The Macera Report, which has been seen by the Herald Sun, said: "Vincenzo Angilletta's murder is the classic example of a killing decided by the mafia."
Canberra mafia cell boss Pasquale "Il Principale" Barbaro, who became a police informer in 1989 and was murdered the following year, was secretly taped by detectives naming Gangemi as one of Melbourne's Calabrian mafia bosses.
A confidential 1991 Victoria Police report named Gangemi as one of the top 10 mafiosi in the state.
That same year, the Australian Bureau of Criminal Intelligence identified Gangemi as one of the top 30 Italian organised crime bosses in the country.
Police intelligence files show he remained a respected and influential member until his death.
On June 28, 2008, Gangemi died of natural causes, aged 86, in Coburg's John Fawkner Hospital.
His death enabled the Herald Sun to finally reveal Gangemi's high standing in the mafia.
Angiletta's allies blamed Demarte and Alfonse Muratore.
Demarte was shot at and wounded by a shotgun blast while leaving his Chapman Street, North Melbourne home to go to market at 3.30am on November 26, 1963.
The shooters were believed to have been two relatives of Angiletta.
Demarte survived but decided to forgo his position in the Honoured Society.
Vincenzo Muratore (Shot dead January 1964) Vincenzo had been a trusted lieutenant of 'Godfather' Domenico Italiano.
He was Domenico Demarte's financial advisor when Demarte took over as Melbourne's 'Godfather' after the deaths of Domenico Italiano and Antonio Barbara in 1962 and 1963.
Vince was a prominent market merchant and commission agent and the father of Alfonso Muratore, shot dead in 1992.
Vincenzo was killed with a shotgun outside his Avondale Street, Hampton home on the way to a supermarket at 2.30am on January 16, 1964.
This was allegedly a payback for the Vincenzo Angiletta murder in April 1963.
He was said to have been killed by two male relatives of Angilletta, one who escaped to Italy after the killing.
Antonio Monaco (Shot dead January 1964) Monaco was a market seller.
He was shot dead on January 18, 1964, two days after Vincenzo Muratore's murder.
Monaco was leaving his Dandenong Road, Braeside home at about 2.30am.
The attack allegedly involved three men as a payback over a domestic dispute.
Domenico Cirillo (Shot February 1964) Cirillo was a fruit and vegetable retailer.
He was wounded with a shotgun blast when leaving his Ardmillan Road, Moonee Pond home for market at 4.30am on February 6, 1964.
Two people are said to have been involved in the attack which came about as the result of domestic and financial dispute.
Rocco Medici - Giuseppe Furina (Found dead May 1984) Medici (left) was a close associate of godfather Liborio Benvenuto.
He was found tortured near the Murrumbidgee River with brother in law Giuseppe Furina on May 6, 1984.
Medici and Furina (left) were both from the Melbourne suburb of East Keilor and were associates of Laurence Sumner, one of Victoria's most notorious criminals. Sumner was said to have supplied the bomb which took out Liborio Benvenuto's land cruiser and it has been alleged that Medici and Furina were killed as payback for the explosion.
One of the men had his ear sliced off, a supposed mafia warning to others that the victim had "heard too much".
Liborio Benvenuto was godfather to one of the Medici family and was a close friend of Furina.
The murders were never solved.
Sumner was an associate of several Italian crime figures and a close friend of "The Friendly Godfather" Giuseppe 'Joe' Arena.
He was gunned down in his Bayswater home in 1988.
Giuseppe Sofra (Shot June 1985) Soffra was a green grocer
He was shot three times in the back of his legs at his Springvale Road fruit shop on June 19, 1985.
The shop was owned by Anotonio Madafferi.
The shootings were said to have been related to a price cutting war in the area and a warning to the two men.
Liborio Benvenuto (Godfather died - May 1988) Liborio was born in Calabria on December 15, 1927.
Involved in the fruit and vegetable industry, he was the son of a man reputed to be 'in charge' of several Calabrian villages.
Benvenuto has been described as a small and dapper fellow.
He was a close associate of Joe Arena who was shot dead in 1988 and the father of Frank Benvenuto, shot dead on May 8, 2000.
Liborio rose to prominence following the 1963-64 market murders of Muratore and Angiletta and became the undisputed Godfather of Melbourne.
Benvenuto's right hand man was Michele Scriva.
He was married to a daughter of Domenico Italiano.
Scriva'a son, Tom, married one of Benvenuto's daughters.
Benvenuto was the father-in-law of Vincenzo Muratore (killed during the wars in 1964).
His daughter was married to Vincenzo's son, Alfonso (killed in 1992), until he left her.
Police at one stage investigated allegations that Benvenuto was involved in moving marijuana from Griffith to Melbourne.
A truck had been driven from Griffith with fruit and vegetables concealing the marijuana.
The truck would be parked in Carlton and the key left above the front tyre.
A second driver would drive the truck to a secret spot, remove the marijuana and return the vehicle.
The original driver would then take it to the market.
On May 10, 1983, Benvenuto's four wheel drive was blown up at the market. No one was hurt. A shotgun was found in the car.
Benvenuto said at the time: "I have no enemies, only friends at the market. "I don't know why anyone would do this at all. "I have never done anyone any harm."
In 1984, the bodies of close-associates Rocco Medici and Giuseppe Furina were found in the Murrumbidgee River, believed by some to be a payback for the bomb.
One of the men had his ear sliced off, a supposed mafia warning to others that the victim had "heard too much".
Benvenuto was godfather to one of the Medici family and was a close friend of Furina.
The murders were never solved.
An astute and experienced criminal, Laurence Joseph Sumner, is rumoured to have helped plant the bomb.
Sumner was also believed to have supplied the gun which was used to kill Joe Arena although it has also been said the pair were close friends.
Sumner was later involved in amphetamines and caught in a speed lab at his home in 1991.
He then became an informant into one of Melbourne's biggest drug cartels.
Liborio Benvenuto died of natural causes in May 1988.
He had not considered son Frank a worthy successor and close associate Giuseppe "Joe" Arena" was summonsed to Benvenuto's Beaumauris home where discussions were held about him becoming head of the organization.
But on his death bed Liborio Benvenuto anointed son-in-law, Alfonso Muratore as Godfather.
After the death of Benvenuto some merchants decided they had had enough of 'paying'.
Some even employed Australian gangsters as a show of strength.
In a shock move however Muratore declined the offer and the next year left his wife, Liborio's daughter, Angela, for mistress Karen Mansfield.
Muratore was shot dead outside his Hampton home it 1992.
An inquest heard allegations that Frank Benvenuto (left) took out a contract of Muratore's life for snubbing the Honoured Society and his family but was never charged.
Frank Benvenuto was shot dead in May 2000.
Giuseppe "Joe" Arena's ascension never came to pass and a rival faction murdered him outside his Bona Vista Rd, Bayswater, home on August 1, 1988, six weeks after Benvenuto had died.
Arena was shot from behind with a shotgun, the traditional Honoured Society method of death with dishonour. The killing happened shortly after he and his wife came home from a wedding in Footscray.
Dominic "Mick" Gatto was considered a prime suspect but later spoke out and denied the allegations vehemently.
Giuseppe 'Joe' Arena (Shot dead August 1988) Joe was known as the friendly Godfather.
He was a close associate of Liborio Benvenuto, undisputed Godfather of Melbourne.
It had been suggested by Liborio that Arena would take over after his impending death.
This never came to pass.
Arena was murdered in the backyard of his Bayswater home on August 1, 1988, a few months after Liborio had died.
It has been said he was killed on the instructions of a rival as he was seen as a possible successor as Honoured Society leader.
Former boxer and current building industry identity, Dominic "Mick" Gatto was considered a prime suspect but later spoke out and denied the allegations vehemently.
Michele Scriva Michele was born in Reggio Calabria on June 19, 1919 and migrated to Australia in 1936.
Scriva, a notorious hit-man, was the right hand man for Liborio Benvenuto.
The pair were related through marriage. Michele was married to a daughter of Domenico Italiano and his son Tom married one of Benvenuto's daughters.
Scriva was a stall holder at Melbourne's fruit and vegetable markets and in 1945 was acquitted of murdering Giuseppe "Fat Joe" Versace in what was probably Victoria's first Mafia hit.
Versace was stabbed 91 times in Fitzroy.
Scriva was charged with murder and stood trial along with Domenico Demarte and Domenico Pezzimenti.
They were all acquitted.
Scriva was later sentenced to hang for murdering Frederick John Duffy to death in North Melbourne in 1950.
Duffy, 36, attempted to intervene in a fight and was stabbed to death.
Scriva's sentence was subsequently commuted to life imprisonment but he only served 10 years.
In May 1989, Michele Scriva died a respected elderly Italian gentleman.
Deaths lead to changing of the guard The deaths of Scriva, Arena and Benvenuto left a power vacuum.
The job of running the Honoured Society in Victoria was given to three men.
They were a retailer, who ran a successful inner suburban business, a fruiterer, who was also a property developer, and the son of a man connected with the 1963-64 Market Wars.
John Vasilopolous (Shot December 1990) In 1989 a senior executive with retailer Coles-Myer called for an investigation into the mafia-style kick backs which seemed to becoming more prevalent at the fruit and vegetable market.
He employed John Vasilopolous to head an internal investigation.
Vasipolous severely rocked the system that the Honoured society had in place. He refused to pay bribes and also deemed some of the fruit to be of an unacceptable quality.
While this was happening, Coles manager Robert Desfosses was seriously assaulted by two men in the carpark of the Sunshine Fruit and Vegetable Distribution Centre on June 18, 1990.
In the same month the wife of Coles fruit and vegetable buyer Terry Hoskin received a call at her home claiming she would be going to her husband's funeral within a week.
Then in August 1990 Coles buyer Paul Rizza received an STD call at his home warning him, "You better watch your back."
The motive for this was aid to have been a direct attack on the efforts of Coles-Myer to clean up "corrupt market practices."
Then in November 1990, internal investigator John Vasilopolous received a number of threatening phone calls.
More of these calls were made to other investigators and Coles management in early December.
John Vasilopolous was blasted by a shotgun as he answered a knock at the door of his Ivanhoe home on December 19, 1990.
A man with an Australian accent who claimed to be 'Tony' shot him in the stomach.
Vasilopolous survived but resigned from his position.
Trouble continues for fruiterers (1991) On March 26, 1991, Cheltenham fruiterer, Armedeo Di Gregorio was ambushed and robbed of $4000.
On May 16, 1991, another Cheltenham fruiter, Jack Degillio was ambushed and robbed of $1000 outside his home.
On June 8, 1991, arson caused $100,000 damage to Central Fruit Market in Bentleigh. The premises was doused with kerosene and set alight.
Antonio Peluso (Shot dead June 1991) Peluso was a Glen Waverly Fruiterer.
He was ambushed and shot several times as he left his home on the way to the market. He died on the veranda of his home.
Peluso was robbed of $4000 but said to be carrying $7000.
More trouble for fruiterers (1991)
On June 27, 1991, East Doncaster Fruiterer, Tabaret Louey was bashed by two men and robbed of $2000 on the way to the market.
On July 3, 1991, Wantirna South fruiterer, Phillip Strati, was bashed and robbed of $5000 outside his home.
On August 5 1991, there was an attempt to blow up the Central Fruit Market after explosives were planted on the roof.
Petrol was added but failed to ignite.
On November 20, 1991 a similar attempt on the Central Market also failed.
Santo Ippolito (Beaten to death December 1991) Ippolito was a retired fruiterer.
He was battered to death by a man who smashed his was into the victim's Springvale home on Christman Eve in 1991.
Ippolito and his wife were in bed after a family barbeque.
There were no demands and nothing was stolen.
A man had broken down Ippolito's front door, entered the bedroom and began beating him with an iron bar.
Ippolito's wife turned the light on but did not recognise the killer. She too was bashed.
Ippolito died in hospital the next day.
The 71 year-old, was president of an RSL club and it was said that a dispute there lead to a hitman being paid to kill Ippolito.
On February 29, 1992 a Melbourne market fruiterer and his wife were pistol whipped and robbed of $5000 at their Wandin home by two masked men.
Robert Nancarrow (Beaten to death March 1992) Robert was the founder of the Nancarrow supermarket chain.
He was beaten to death in his Northcote shop and drowned in his own blood on March 2, 1992. The motive was assumed to be robbery.
Costa rings in It was then that big-time Geelong fruiterer Costa's Pty Ltd was called in by Coles-Myer.
They were seen as very trustworthy and reputable.
This was successful to a degree with company head and now Geelong Football Club President Frank Costa, appearing on ABC-TV's Four Corners program.
He spoke out against the corruption and spoke of the fear many fruiterers had for their lives.
On July 19, 1992, Alfonso Muratore and Orlando Luciano met with Coles-Myer executives in an attempt to smooth things over and to advise them of some of the questionable schemes that had operated at the market.
The meeting was highly secret and the city venue was checked extensively for bugs.
The two were believed to be making a solid sales pitch to the executives, ensuring them that they could do a better and 'cleaner job'.
In the weeks following the meeting, Muratore had acid poured over his car and he was assaulted at the market, leaving him with a blackened eye.
He was soon dead.
Alfonso Muratore (Shot dead August 1992) On August 4, 1992, Alfonso, then 39, was shot dead in Hampton as his father Vincenzo had been 28 years before.
He had left his Storey Avenue house at 1.30am to drive to the market with friend, and workmate Ron Lever, the step father of his de facto wife.
A hooded gunman fired at close range as Muratore was about to climb into his car.
Lever was shot in the legs to immobilise him but Muratore was shot twice in the head and died instantly.
At least three other major fruit and vegetable merchants immediately employed armed security guards after the murder because they were told their names were on a death list.
A relative of Muratore received death threats and eventually moved after his house was vandalised.
A 1995 inquest heard allegations that Frank Benvenuto took out a contract on Muratore's life for snubbing the Honoured Society and his family but was never charged.
Benvenuto took over Muratore's fruit stall at the market after Alfonso was shot dead.
Ms Mansfield said at the inquest that Frank Benvenuto had tried to hire someone to kill Muratore.
He had been trying to regain control of the market stall when he was shot dead.
He had also told investigators about corruption involving supermarket buyers and fruit and vegetable wholesalers only two weeks before being executed.
Frank Benvenuto told the inquest he had no idea who had murdered Muratore.
Another man police saw as a suspect in Muratore's death was truck-driving fruiterer, Guiseppe 'Joe' Quadara.
Represented by jailed criminal lawyer, Andrew Fraser, it was speculated that Quadara eluded a payback hit when a man of the same name was shot dead in Toorak on Friday 28 May 1999.
Frank Benvenuto (Shot dead May 2000) Frank was the son of former Melbourne Godfather, Liborio, who became Honoured Society crime boss after winning the bloody market wars of the 1960's. Frank was related to Michele and Tom Scriva through marriage.
Frank was a known associate of the notorious Moran family.
Liborio Benvenuto, who died of natural causes in 1988, did not consider Frank a worthy successor.
At the time Benvenuto senior was critically ill, it was also thought son-in-law, Alfonso Muratore was not ready to take over the running of his empire.
Giuseppe "Joe'' Arena was summonsed by Benvenuto senior and discussions were held about him becoming head of the organisation.
But it never came to pass because a rival faction murdered Arena outside his Bayswater home shortly after.
Then, on his death bed, Liborio anointed his son-in-law, Alfonso Muratore.
But in a shock move, Muratore declined the offer and the next year left his wife Angela, and Frank's sister, for a mistress.
Muratore was shot dead outside his Hampton home in 1992.
An inquest heard allegations Benvenuto took out a contract of Muratore's life for snubbing the Honoured Society and his family but was never charged.
Benvenuto had no criminal record and detectives could not link him to Muratore's murder.
Benvenuto took over Muratore's fruit stall at the market after the killing.
Frank Benvenuto was shot in the chest at the wheel of his Holden Statesman outside his Beaumaris home at about 3pm on May 8, 2000.
He was on his way to the tip.
His falling out with Alfonso Muratore after Muratore left Angela Benvenuto for lover Karen Mansfield in 1989 is one avenue homicide detectives followed in trying to identify a motive for the murder.
Karen Mansfield said at Muratore's 1995 inquest that Frank Benvenuto had tried to hire someone to kill Muratore.
He had been trying to regain control of the market stall when he was shot dead.
He had also told investigators about corruption involving supermarket buyers and fruit and vegetable wholesalers only two weeks before being executed.
Frank Benvenuto told the inquest he had no idea who had murdered Muratore.
Victor Peirce, one of the men acquitted of the 1988 Walsh St police shootings and a member of the Pettingill crime family, was also believed to be linked the murder.
Police said Pierce worked as "hired muscle" for Benvenuto both before and after a six-year jail sentence for drug trafficking between 1992-98.
Detectives said the circumstances suggested Mr Benvenuto knew his killer, who shot him in the chest through the car window.
Peirce was interviewed over the killing, but said he was working on the docks at the time and is believed to have had an unshakeable alibi.
Before his conviction for drug trafficking, he was reported to have fired a machinegun inside the wholesale fruit and vegetable market at Footscray early one morning.
He was working for Mr Benvenuto then, during a period when price fixing, extortion, standover tactics and drug trafficking were reported to be rife at the market.
Some detectives believed the circumstances of his murder -- shot in daylight as he sat in his car -- may be seen as a public warning to his supporters and family.
They expected there will be revenge killings as a result.
"The best indication of which faction killed Frank will be the identity of the next body that turns up,'' a source said.
Drug dealer and stand over man Richard Mlandenich was shot dead at a St Kilda flat on May 16.
He had been released from jail a month before and had shared a room with Chopper Read whilst inside.
He was said to be a giant of a man as well as being extremely violent. Had a criminal record of more than nine pages with most charges relating to street violence.
He also had 24 aliases including John Mancini and RIchard Mantello.
Mark Moran was murdered five weeks later outside his luxury home in Combermere St, Aberfeldie, near Essendon, on June 15, 2000.
Victor Pierce was shot dead on May 1, 2002. In turn, it was also alleged that the Moran's were involved in the Peirce shooting.
Frank Benvenuto had a habit of saying "God bless you'' at the end of most conversations.
On November 15, 2001, police offered a $100,000 reward for information leading to finding Benvenuto's killer.
Police said that they believe a woman walking her dog in Dalgety Rd could possibly help them with their investigations.
Homicide squad detective-Insprctor Brian Rix said police had no proof linking Mr Benvenuto to the underworld.
He appealed for the public to solve the murder of the highly respected member of the Italian community.
Detective Rix said police wanted to hear from the fruiterers associates at the Footscray Market and the Italian community.
Det-Insp Rix said he had spoken to Mr Benvenuto while investigating past market-related crimes and he was "always a very pleasant, well mannered and polite person."
Gantanol 'Tom' Scriva (1945-2000) Born 1945, the son of notorious hit man Michele Scriva, Tom married Rose Benvenuto, daughter of Melbourne Godfather Liborio and sister of Alfonse Muratore's wife Angela.
Tom Scriva was a disgraced lawyer for suspected Melbourne mafia and underworld figures including Victor Peirce and those accused of the Russell Street bombing.
He was involved in underworld rip-offs and scams worth millions of dollars.
On July 13, 2000, Tom Scriva died after suffering a heart attack at Frank Benvenuto Junior's wedding.
submitted by Hot_Bet_7894 to Mafia [link] [comments]

2023.03.25 11:55 plainenglish2 “Mr. Sunshine” (historical and cultural backgrounders for international viewers)

“Mr. Sunshine” (historical and cultural backgrounders for international viewers)
Index: Introduction (Eugene’s music box, Greensleeves, What Child Is This, Genshin Impact’s Dawn Winery theme); A. Ep. 1: Battle of Gangwha Island; The Joseon general’s flag (“Sujagi”) during the Battle of Gangwha Island; B. Ep. 2: “Operation Fox Hunt” (Eulmi Incident; assassination of Queen Min); Battle of El Caney; Ep. 2 introduces us to (1) King Gojong’s fondness for coffee; (2) “Glory Hotel” which will become the setting for numerous scenes in later episodes; (3) the advent of electricity in Joseon; and (4) street cars in the latter part of the Joseon Dynasty; C. Ep. 3: “The Baby Riots of 1888”; Dong-mae and the “baekchong” (the most despised group of people during the Joseon Dynasty); D. Ep. 4: Ae-shin enrolls in the English school; How Joseon Koreans learned English; E. Ep. 7: “Patbingsu” (literally “red beans shaved ice”), a popular Korean shaved ice dessert with sweet toppings; F. Ep. 9: Eugene’s confession to Ae-shin; slavery during the Joseon Dynasty; Three major events happened in Korea in 1894; G. Ep. 13: How American missionaries helped King Gojong; the controversial Horace Allen Newton, the American medical missionary who became US ambassador to Joseon Korea; H. Ep. 18: The most-talked about scene of “Mr. Sunshine” when Dong-mae cuts off Ae-shin’s hair; the Confucian prohibition against cutting off a person’s hair during the Joseon Dynasty; I. Ep. 22: “Battle of Namdaemun” (1907); Eugene meets Ahn Changho (aka An Chang-ho), a Korean independence activist and one of the early leaders of the Korean-American immigrant community in the United States; J. Ep. 24: Frederick Arthur McKenzie, the journalist who interviewed the Righteous Army; K. Miscellaneous: Are Eugene, Lee Wan-ik, Ae-shin, Dong-mae, and Kudo Hina fictional characters, or are they based on historical figures? (The Korea Herald and Korea JoongAng Daily); Treaties and agreements mentioned in this drama; Black Dragon Society (referred to in later episodes of the drama as “Musin Society”); Ae-shin’s headdresses; Why did Dong-mae have paintings of plum blossoms on his scabbards?

Introduction (Eugene’s music box, Greensleeves, What Child Is This, Genshin Impact’s Dawn Winery theme)

Ep. 18 of “Mr. Sunshine” had just been aired when I decided to catch up before the series ended. I did catch up, bingeing Eps. 1-18 in just a little over a week. Besides the emotional impact of Yoo-jin’s escape from Joseon, what resonated with me most in Ep. 1 are the scenes with the music box because I’ve always been fascinated with music boxes.

When I heard the tune from the music box in Ep. 1, what came to my mind was the Christmas song “What Child Is This.” It was only later on that I found out that the tune was actually “Greensleeves.”

Several months ago, Band-Maid (an all female Japanese band) released their rock version of the “Dawn Winery” theme from the popular online game Genshin Impact. Almost immediately, people began debating whether the “Dawn Winery” theme was inspired (copied?) from Greensleeves or the Christmas song “What Child Is This.”

Questions for those of you who are knowledgeable in music: Were “What Child Is This” and the “Dawn Winery” theme from Genshin Impact inspired (copied?) from Greensleeves? Or did these three songs just happen to have some similar notes or chords, and are actually different from each other?

A. Ep. 1: Battle of Gangwha Island; The Joseon general’s flag (“Sujagi”) during the Battle of Gangwha Island

A-1. Battle of Gangwha Island:

“The Battle of Ganghwa was fought during the conflict between Joseon and the United States in 1871. In May, an expedition of five Asiatic Squadron warships set sail from Japan to Korea in order to establish trade relations, ensure the safety of shipwrecked sailors, and to find out what happened to the crew of the SS General Sherman. When American forces arrived in Korea, the originally peaceful mission turned into a battle when guns from a Korean fort suddenly opened fire on the Americans. The battle to capture Ganghwa Island’s forts was the largest engagement of the conflict.”

Battle of Ganghwa (Ep. 1 , “Mr. Sunshine”)

Koreans who died in fighting in Gwanseong Garrison; Albumen silver print by Felice Beato (New World Encyclopedia)

A-2. The Joseon general’s flag (“Sujagi”) during the Battle of Gangwha Island

“After 136 years, the rank flag of General Eo Jae-yeon (1823-1871) was returned to the South Korean Cultural Heritage Administration. The flag is on loan from the U.S. Naval Academy Museum, which has had possession. The flag was captured as a war trophy in 1871, when the U.S. Expedition to Korea captured the flag in 1871 when American troops seized Ganghwa Island.

Read also “General’s Flag Returns Home From US” (The Korea Times, 2007).

Battle of Gangwha Island (Ep. 1, “Mr. Sunshine”)

“Sujagi” captured as war trophy by US troops

B. Ep. 2: “Operation Fox Hunt” (Eulmi Incident; assassination of Queen Min); Battle of El Caney; Ep. 2 introduces us to (1) King Gojong’s fondness for coffee; (2) “Glory Hotel” which will become the setting for numerous scenes in later episodes; (3) the advent of electricity in Joseon; and (4) street cars in the latter part of the Joseon Dynasty

B-1. In Ep. 2, Ae-shin’s grandfather warns her about what happened to the late Queen Min. In Ep. 4, Lord Ito Hirobumi mentions to Lee Wan-ik the phrase “Operation Fox Hunt.” Otherwise referred to as the “Eulmi Incident,” this refers to the assassination of King Gojong’s wife, Queen Min (formally “Empress Myeongseong”) on October 8, 1895, by a band of about 50 Japanese swordsmen.

From Wikipedia: “The government of Meiji Japan considered Empress Myeongseong an obstacle to its overseas expansion. Efforts to remove her from the political arena, orchestrated through failed rebellions prompted by the father of King Gojong, the Heungseon Daewongun (an influential regent working with the Japanese), compelled her to take a harsher stand against Japanese influence.”

B-2. The Spanish-American War erupts, and Eugene and Major Kyle Moore are thrown into the fierce battle of El Caney.

The Battle of El Caney was fought on July 1, 1898, during the Spanish-American War. 600 Spanish soldiers held for twelve hours, until they ran out of ammunition, against Henry W. Lawton’s 5th US Division, made up of 6,899 men. This action temporarily delayed the American advance on the San Juan Hills, as had been requested of General William Rufus Shafter. Nevertheless, American forces advanced on San Juan Hill the same day. Though encountering spirited resistance similar to El Caney, the Americans were ultimately victorious, culminating in the capitulation of the Spanish garrison.

Battle of El Caney (Ep. 2, “Mr. Sunshine”)

The capture of El Caney (Christy)

B-3. Ep. 2 introduces us to (1) King Gojong’s fondness for coffee; (2) “Glory Hotel” which will become the setting for numerous scenes in later episodes; (3) the advent of electricity in Joseon; and (4) street cars in the latter part of the Joseon Dynasty

(1) King Gojong’s fondness for coffee

Coffee is frequently mentioned throughout this drama. In history, King Gojong did have a fondness for coffee. Most sources say that he came to know about coffee during his 1896 stay at the Russian embassy. But historian Robert D. Neff proves in “Koreans, coffee and the king’s court” (Jeju Weekly) that coffee was known and served in Joseon’s royal court even before 1896.

King Gojong’s fondness for coffee provided the means for an assassination attempt against him and the Crown Prince. This is the historical basis for the 2012 movie “Gabi” aka “Russian Coffee” starring Park Hee-soon (as King Gojong), Kim So-yeon, and Joo Jin-mo (he played the role of Wang Yu in “Empress Ki”).

(2) “Glory Hotel” is the setting for numerous scenes in Ep. 2 and later episodes.

In the article “Korea’s first foreign hotels in 1880s Jemulpo” by Robert Neff (The Korea Times) , historian and longtime Seoul resident Robert Neff describes several famous hotels during the 1880s, namely, “Hotel de Corea” (aka “Steinbeck’s Hotel”), “Harry’s Hotel,” “Sea View Hotel,” and “Daibuts Hotel.”

(3) From “Electricity Sends Sparks Flying in Joseon Korea” by Robert Neff: “When electricity was first introduced, many superstitious people believed that the electricity angered the spirits and blamed all their misfortunes, including droughts and famines, upon this Western introduction. As time passed electricity became more accepted and was used to illuminate not only the palace and Western homes but also the streets of Seoul. However, superstitions did not die easily.”

(4) Street cars are a recurring sight in this drama; they first appear in Ep. 2 when a street car passes between Ae-shin and Eugene. Other examples: in Ep. 11, Ae-shin, Hee-sung, and Gu Dong-mae meet on a street car; in Ep. 22, from a street car, Kudo Hina shoots at the Japanese soldiers during the “Battle of Nandaemun.”

From “History: The Introduction of Street Cars” by Robert Neff :

“One of the earliest modernizations to Seoul was the introduction of streetcars in 1899 by an American company. It was heralded by many people as a symbol of modernization and prosperity. But not all viewed the streetcars with anticipation and delight. Korea was suffering from a severe drought and many superstitious people thought that the streetcars were to be blamed.”

In his article, Neff also narrates how Koreans rioted after a child was run over by a street car, and the street car service was suspended for several weeks when the Japanese drivers refused to go back to work. The problem was solved when the company that owned the street cars hired Americans known as the “California House” — “a rough group of cow punchers, gamblers, bartenders and even a professional gunslinger who later got into trouble for shooting the topknots off of Korean pedestrians.”

C. Ep. 3: “The Baby Riots of 1888”; Dong-mae and the “baekchong” (the most despised group of people during the Joseon Dynasty)

C-1. After Ae-shin’s altercation with the rowdy Japanese sergeant, she and her servants see American soldiers boarding the train; her servant Haman says that Americans eat people. She’s referring to a historical incident known as “The Baby Riots of 1888.”

From “The Baby Riots of 1888” (Wikipedia citing “Korea Through Western Eyes” by Robert D. Neff, 2009):

“The Baby Riots of 1888 took place in the summer of 1888 in Joseon Korea. Rumours circulated that foreigners in Seoul were kidnapping young Korean infants and children, gouging out their eyes for use as camera lenses, grinding their internal organs for use in medicine, and eating them. These rumours implicated both the western powers that were present in Korea at the time, as well as the Japanese. These riots saw Koreans gathering outside hospitals, schools and churches run by foreigners to rail against the ‘baby-snatchers’ inside. Many in the foreign community were alarmed by the ferocity of the riots and made preparations to leave Korea, and diplomatic representatives of the foreign legations pressed the Joseon government to repudiate the rumours, which they did reluctantly.”

C-2. Dong-mae and the “baekchong” (the most despised group of people during the Joseon Dynasty)

Ep. 3 provides Dong-mae’s back story of his parents being “baekchong” (alternative spelling “paekchong”) and how he returned to Joseon as the feared leader of Japanese gangsters. For more information about the “baekchong,” please read my discussion titled Origins of the “baekchong” (the most despised people during the Joseon Dynasty); dramas where a lead character is a baekchong).

D. Ep. 4: Ae-shin enrolls in the English school; How Joseon Koreans learned English

Historian Robert D. Neff in “Learning English in the 1880s, A glimpse into the history of learning English in Korea” tells us how Koreans first came to learn English:

“In 1882—just prior to Korea opening to the West—Koreans who desired to learn English had to travel to Japan.”
“Missionaries also established schools. In 1886, Mary F. Scranton, an American, established Ehwa Hakdang (Pear Flower School), a school for girls. One early teacher recalled that it started out as more of a place where poor girls would be fed and clothed rather than a place of education. The school is now known as Ewha Womans University and is one of the most prestigious schools in Korea.”
“English was also learned on streets and around the ports that foreign sailors and soldiers frequented.”

From “Impact of English on late Joseon” (The Korea Times): King Gojong, the 26th king of Joseon, was the first to establish a school for English. A palace school named “Yugyoung Gongwon” (royal English school) was established in 1883 with an American missionary, Homer B. Hulbert, and three other missionaries.

E. Ep. 7: “Patbingsu” (literally “red beans shaved ice”), a popular Korean shaved ice dessert with sweet toppings

On their way to the English school, Ae-shin and her servant stop by at the French bakery and order some “bingsu.”

From Wikipedia:

The early forms of “patbingsu” consisted of shaved ice and two or three ingredients, typically red bean paste, “tteok,” and ground nut powder. The earliest forms of “patbingsu” existed during the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910). Government records show officials sharing crushed ice topped with various fruits.
The modern forms of “patbingsu” are reputed to have originated during the period of Korea under Japanese rule (1910-1945) with the introduction of a cold dish featuring red bean paste.

F. Ep. 9: Eugene’s confession to Ae-shin; slavery during the Joseon Dynasty; Three major events happened in Korea in 1894

F-1. Ep. 9: Eugene’s confession to Ae-shin; slavery during the Joseon Dynasty

From “Jejoongwon, Part 1: The History”: During the Joseon Dynasty, society was divided into four castes, with the “yangban” (nobles) as the highest caste. The lowest caste was “chonmin” that consisted of slaves, convicts, shamans, entertainers (such as gisaengs and storytellers), and butchers.

From “Korea, The Politics of the Vortex” (1968) by Gregory Henderson: The “despised people” (chonmin) consisted of private and public slaves, shamans, buffoons, traveling dancers, singers, Buddhist monks and nuns, and butchers.

From “Nobi: Rescuing the Nation from Slavery” (The Korea Times): One of the interesting aspects of pre-modern Korean history is the existence of a huge number of slaves, perhaps averaging 30% or perhaps 40% of the population for the Chosŏn dynasty.

F-2. Three major events happened in Korea in 1894 (The Korea Times):

Slavery, hereditary social status, discrimination against widows and concubines, and many other forms of determining social privilege were legally abolished.
This did not mean that everything changed overnight. Some of these ideals took years and even decades to realize, but the Gabo Reform’s initiation and articulation of momentous change proved significant and durable. The “spirit of Gabo” persisted as a driving force for social and political reform and shaped the subsequent emergence of modern Korea.

G. Ep. 13: How American missionaries helped King Gojong; the controversial Horace Allen Newton, the American medical missionary who became US ambassador to Joseon Korea

In Ep. 13, King Gojong and Minister Lee Jeong-mun use an American missionary as their intermediary. In previous episodes, we meet Horace Newton Allen, the American ambassador to Joseon Korea, where he’s presented as a weak administrator and a corrupt official who accepted a bribe from Lee Wan-ik (to stop Eugene’s investigation into missionary Joseph’s death). He’s referred to as being a doctor, but the drama (as far as I can recall) doesn’t mention him even once as a Presbyterian medical missionary. In fact, as part of his missionary activities, Allen founded Jejoongwon, which is now the ultramodern Severance Hospital. Severance Hospital ispart of Yonsei University, which is one of the top three universities in Korea.

Top: Replica of Jejoongwon’s original structure; Bottom: Severance Hospital

For a much-more favorable portrayal of Horace Newton Allen, watch the 2010 drama “Jejoongwon” starring Han Hye-jin (she played Sosuhno in “Jumong”). Although not a big hit, “Jejoongwon” is a favorite among knowledgeable and credible websites like Dramabeans, Thundie’s Prattle, The Talking Cupboard, Electric Ground, and Korean Historical Dramas.

From “The Legacy of Horace Newton Allen” by Wi Jo Kang (Theological Seminary in Dubuque, Iowa):

The main enemy of Korean independence, as Allen rightly perceived, was the growth of Japanese power. Allen constantly warned his government that expanding Japanese power was the greatest threat to world peace.
Allen hoped to save Korea from Japanese imperial ambitions. He wished to instill this hope in his U.S. superiors, but the attitudes in Washington, especially those of President Theodore Roosevelt, seemed to be pro-Japanese.

From “Providence and Politics: Horace N. Allen and the Early US-Korea Encounter, 1884-1894” by Andrea Yun Kwon (University of California, Berkeley):

Few names are more recognizable to students of early American-Korean relations than that of Horace Newton Allen. And for good reason. During the twenty years the angular, bespectacled physician from Ohio lived in Chosŏn Korea, he supervised the kingdom’s first Western- style hospital and medical school, cultivated close ties with the monarch, helped secure gold mining and other concessions for American business, played a central role in Korean migration to Hawaii, and, for nearly a decade, served as the United States ambassador in Seoul. As historian Wayne Patterson summarizes, “In the one hundred years since Korea was opened to the West no foreigner became more involved in Korea’s affairs than Horace Allen.
... Indeed in contrast to impressions that from the outset Allen was a freewheeling opportunist—someone who, as one historian described, “nicely combined his Presbyterian missionary dedication with a robber-baron passion for making money”—the evidence reveals a more complicated story.
H. Ep. 18: The most-talked about scene of “Mr. Sunshine” when Dong-mae cuts off Ae-shin’s hair; the Confucian prohibition against cutting off a person’s hair during the Joseon Dynasty

Perhaps the most-talked about scene of “Mr. Sunshine” is in Ep. 18 when Dong-mae cuts off Ae-shin’s hair, which is in the “daeng’gi meori” style of unmarried Joseon women. Finding out later on in Ep. 19 what Dong-mae did, Lord Go beats him repeatedly and warns him to stay away from Ae-shin or else be punished the way that butchers are punished under Joseon laws; Eugene goes to challenge him; and Hee-sung punches him repeatedly. Ae-shin, meanwhile, cries in shame as her grandfather comes to see her.

Why did Ae-shin, Lord Go, Eugene, and Hee-sung react the way that they did? Simply stated, Confucianism, which is the foundation of the Joseon Dynasty, prohibited the cutting of a person’s hair because it is part of a person’s legacy from his or her parents.

From Wikipedia: “The Classic of Filial Piety, also known by its Chinese name as the Xiaojing, is a Confucian classic treatise giving advice on filial piety: that is, how to behave towards a senior such as a father, an elder brother, or ruler.”

The Classic of Filial Piety states: “Our bodies ― to every hair and bit of skin ― are received by us from our parents, and we must not presume to injure or wound them. This is the beginning of filial piety.”

Ae-shin herself states in Ep. 19 (around the 4:41 mark) how she regarded her hair: “We all live in different worlds, and each cherishes different things. In my world, Joseon, my family, and my hair given by my parents are all dear to me.”

Perhaps the clearest illustration for the implications of cutting off a person’s hair comes from Ep. 19 of the 2011 drama “The Princess’s Man” where Se-ryung cuts off her hair to signify that she is cutting off her ties with her father King Sejo, aka Grand Prince Suyang.
But the prohibition against cutting off a person’s hair also applied to Joseon men. It was said that Joseon men would rather die than have their topknot (“sangtu”) cut off; the topknot was their symbol of manhood, and in history, King Gojong’s first order to have the topknots cut off was rescinded.

In Ep. 1, why did the young Yoo-jin cut off his hair? It’s to signify his complete break with Joseon as he has then decided to join the American military.

In Episode 7 of the 2014 drama “The Joseon Gunman,” Park Yoon-kang cuts off his topknot to signify that he was cutting off his ties to Joseon and embracing his Japanese identity.)

In the last part of Episode 17 and the start of Episode 18 of “Jejoongwon” (2010), Baek Do-yang cuts off his topknot to symbolize that he is cutting off his ties to his noble status.

Upon reaching manhood or upon getting married, a Joseon nobleman or scholar pulled his hair to the top and tied it into a topknot called “sangtu.” A headband called “manggeon” was used to hold the hair in place. Joseon commoners and slaves also used a topknot called “minsangtu” but without a headband. For more information, surf to “A Guide to Joseon Hairstyles and Headgears” (The Talking Cupboard).

I. Ep. 22: “Battle of Namdaemun” (1907); Eugene meets Ahn Changho (aka An Chang-ho), a Korean independence activist and one of the early leaders of the Korean-American immigrant community in the United States

I-1. The last 15 minutes of Episode 22 depict the “Battle of Namdaemun” that took place on August 1, 1907 after the Joseon military was disbanded.

From Wikipedia:

“Namdaemun (South Great Gate), officially known as the Sungnyemun, Gate of Exalted Ceremonies, is one of the Eight Gates in the Fortress Wall of Seoul, South Korea, which surrounded the city in the Joseon dynasty. The gate is located in Jung-gu between Seoul Station and Seoul Plaza, with the historic 24-hour Namdaemun market next to the gate.
“The gate, dating back to the 14th century, is a historic pagoda-style gateway, and is designated as the first National Treasure of South Korea ... It was first built in the last year of King Taejo of Joseon’s reign in 1398, and rebuilt in 1447.
“In 2008, the wooden pagoda atop the gate was severely damaged by arson. Restoration work on the gateway started in February 2010 and was completed on 29 April 2013. The gate was reopened on 4 May 2013.”

Battle of Namdaemun (Wikipedia):

“The 1st Battalion Commander Major Park Sung-hwan (1869-1907), wrote a note on a paper and committed suicide by shooting himself. The note said that he was against the disbandment of the armed forces.
“His suicide enraged the soldiers, which extorted ammunition and armaments, arranged sentries around the barracks and started to open fire with guns against the Imperial Japanese Army.”
“Using machine guns that were placed atop the walls, the Japanese Imperial Army routed the 3,000 Korean soldiers who led the uprising. From Namdaemun, the battle spilled over to the capital’s streets in the area now occupied by the Korean Chamber of Commerce and Industry.”

Battle of Namdaemun from French newspaper

I-2. After he’s released from prison, Eugene meets Ahn Changho (aka An Chang-ho), a Joseon scholar who asked him for directions to Columbia University.

From Wikipedia:

Ahn Changho was a Korean independence activist and one of the early leaders of the Korean-American immigrant community in the United States.
He established the Shinminhoe (New Korea Society) when he returned to Korea from the US in 1907. It was the most important organization to fight the Japanese occupation of Korea. He established the Young Korean Academy in San Francisco in 1913 and was a key member in the founding of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in Shanghai in 1919.
Ahn is one of two men believed to have written the lyrics of the Aegukga, the South Korean national anthem.

J. Ep. 24: Frederick Arthur McKenzie, the journalist who interviewed the Righteous Army

Frederick Arthur McKenzie, the journalist who interviewed the Righteous Army in Ep. 24, is a historical character. For more information, read “McKenzie, journalist who delved into Korean justice” (The Korea Herald). His book “The Tragedy of Korea,” published in 1908, is freely available in various formats in the Project Gutenberg website.

Excerpt from the Korea Herald article:

“Frederick Arthur McKenzie is remembered by Koreans as a true, brave journalist whose reporting and writing during the early 20th century helped expose Koreans’ sufferings under the rule of Imperial Japan. His writings and photos remain precious records of Korea’s turbulent history.

Top picture from “Mr. Sunshine”; bottom picture from Frederick Arthur McKenzie’s book

K. Miscellaneous: Are Eugene, Lee Wan-ik, Ae-shin, Dong-mae, and Kudo Hina fictional characters or based on historical figures?; Treaties and agreements mentioned in this drama; Black Dragon Society (referred to in later episodes of the drama as “Musin Society”); Ae-shin’s headdresses; Why did Dong-mae have paintings of plum blossoms on his scabbards?

K-1. Are Eugene, Lee Wan-ik, Ae-shin, Dong-mae, and Kudo Hina fictional characters, or are they based on historical figures? (The Korea Herald and Korea JoongAng Daily)

From ‘Mr. Sunshine’ offers ray of hope with mesmerizing fantasy (The Korea Herald):

Eugene Choi appears to be the product of wishful imagination inspired by US naval attache George Foulke, who spoke Korean, explored various parts of the country, and even understood the political intrigues between factions in Joseon’s court that were influenced by China and Japan at the time.

The Korea Herald article also says that antagonist Lee Wan-ik is based on "Ye Wan-yong, a pro-Japanese minister of Korea who signed the Japan Korea Annexation Treaty which placed Korea under Japanese rule in 1910."

Other sources such as Korea JoonAng Daily say that Ae-shin and Dong-mae are fictional characters (without mentioning Kudo Hina).

Hina is depicted as a sophisticated woman who can speak Korean, Japanese, and English. She may have been inspired by an Austrian woman named “Hannah,” the sister-in-law of the owner of Steinbeck’s Hotel. Robert Neff in his article “Korea’s first foreign hotels in 1880s Jemulpo” by Robert Neff (The Korea Times) describes Hannah as a “very fascinating young lady, a most accomplished damsel, who could speak fluently every language under the sun — from Turkish and Arabic to Corean and Japanese.”

K-2. Treaties and agreements mentioned in “Mr. Sunshine”

Japan-Korea Treaty of 1904
Japan-Korea Treaty of 1905 (aka “Eulsa Treaty”): “The treaty deprived Korea of its diplomatic sovereignty and made Korea a protectorate of Imperial Japan.”
Japan-Korea Treaty of 1907
Taft–Katsura Agreement (in relation the drama’s references to the Philippines)

K-3. Black Dragon Society (referred to in later episodes of the drama as “Musin Society”)

Dong-mae is depicted as the leader of a Japanese gang operating in Joseon, which is affiliated with the Black Dragon Society (referred to in later episodes as “Musin Society”).

From Wikipedia:

The Black Dragon Society (“Kokuryūkai” or Amur River Society) was a prominent paramilitary, ultra-nationalist right-wing group in Japan.
During the Russo-Japanese War, annexation of Korea and Siberian Intervention, the Imperial Japanese Army made use of the Kokuryūkai network for espionage, sabotage and assassination.
Initially directed only against Russia, in the 1930s, the Kokuryūkai expanded its activities around the world, and stationed agents in such diverse places as Ethiopia, Turkey, Morocco, throughout southeast Asia and South America, as well as Europe and the United States.

Note: "Bridal Mask" aka "Gaksital" is a 2012 drama starring Joo Won, Jin Se-yeon, and Shin Hyun-joon. Similar to "Mr. Sunshine," it’s set during the Japanese colonial rule in Korea. If "Mr. Sunshine" has its "Black Dragon Society" aka “Musin Society,” "Bridal Mask" has “Kishokai.”

K-5. Ae-shin’s various headdresses

“Jangot” (left); “Ayam” (right)

On several occasions, Ae-shin wears a “jangot” (“changot”) to cover herself, like other noble women in Joseon as they went out in public. I discussed the “jangot” in my post about the historical and cultural backgrounders of "Mr. Queen."

In Ep. 9 (end) and Ep. 10 (start), Ae-shin wears a traditional winter cap called “ayam”; it is also called “aegeom” which literally means “covering a forehead” in Korean. The “ayam” traditionally consist of a “mobu or” crown (open at the top) and a big ribbon (“deurim”). The tassel attached to the upper center of both front and back is mostly red in color and the strings connected from both sides are all flat braids. (Wikipedia)

K-6. Why did Dong-mae have paintings of plum blossoms on his scabbards?

A Japanese samurai carries two swords — the longer one, around 40 inches long, is called “katana,” while the shorter one, around 24 inches long, is called “wakizashi.”

Dong-mae’s scabbards have paintings of plum blossoms. The name “Dong-mae” comes from “Dong” (winter) and “mae” (plum blossom). The meaning of his name (“the plum blossoms that bloom in winter”) may explain why plum blossoms are painted on his scabbards, as actor Yoo Yeon-seok explained in an interview. You can first glimpse these plums blossoms on his scabbards in Ep. 3 when he confronts the two Japanese men who were talking about molesting Ae-shin.

We know from Ep. 15 that plum blossoms are the symbol of the Joseon monarchy. Could the plum blossoms on Dong-mae’s scabbards possibly symbolize that he has never given up on Joseon? I doubt that very much; Dong-mae belonged to the wretched “baekchong” sub-caste, and he had to escape to Japan after his parents were killed.

Besides the plain meaning that the plum blossoms on Dong-mae’s scabbards represent his name, I believe that, based on several scenes from Eps. 6, 7, and 24, the plum blossoms represent Ae-shin or his love for Ae-shin.

(1) In Ep. 24, starting at around the 30:47 mark, when Dong-mae looks at the plum blossoms, he remembers his tender moments with Ae-shin.

(2) Starting at around the 1:51 mark of Ep. 6, Dong-mae confesses his love for Ae-shin. He tells Ae-shin that he became what he is (a samurai who’s working for the dreaded Musin Society) because it was the only way by which he could go back to Joseon and to her.

Beginning at around the 3:52 mark of Ep. 6 mark, Dong-mae goes back home feeling dejected. He apologizes to Hotaru because he forgot the things that she wanted from the brush, ink, and paper store. Hotaru then writes “You’re an idiot” on Dong-mae’s right palm. (From Ep. 7 at around the 1:02:40 mark, we can deduce that Hotaru knows that Dong-mae was secretly watching Ae-shin every time that she went to the store.)

As he walks away from Hotaru who slaps him lightly on the back, Dong-mae says, “That hurts.” We then see a close-up of the plum blossoms on one of his scabbards and, more significantly, a drop of water that trickles down, like a teardrop, from his scabbard.
Joyce Landorf wrote many years ago a book titled "Tough and Tender; What Every Woman Wants in a Man." Tough and tender ... this perfectly describes who Dong-mae is; he’s a Japanese samurai/gangster who kills people in cold blood. But he’s also tender, with paintings of plum blossoms on his scabbards as symbols of his one true unrequited love, and whose heartache flows like a teardrop from his scabbard.
“Heartache flowing like a teardrop from his scabbard that’s painted with plum blossoms .... ” I love this sentimental stuff!


(1) In digging up the historical and cultural backgrounders of the K-dramas that I watch, I rely on English language resources on the Internet. I don’t speak or read Korean, and so I can’t search through Naver. Those of you who read Korean or are more knowledgeable about Korean culture and history should correct whatever errors or omissions there may be in this discussion.

(2) Some of the linked resources in this discussion are in PDF format. If you are using the latest version of Mozilla Firefox as your browser, it will give you the choice of viewing the PDF online instead of downloading it.

(3) Other discussions that I have posted on the historical and cultural backgrounders of K-historical dramas:

“Mr. Queen” (historical and cultural backgrounders for international viewers, with references to other K-dramas)

“Hotel Del Luna” (some cultural backgrounders for international viewers)

“The Princess’s Man” (award-winning 2011 drama starring Moon Chae-won and Park Si-hoo)

“The Flower in Prison” (blockbuster 2016 drama starring Jin Se-yeon and Go-soo; 34 of its 51 episodes reached more than 20% viewership)

“Jejoongwon” (2010 historical-medical drama starring Han Hye-jin, Yeon Jung-hoon, and Park Yong-woo; Dramabeans ranked this drama as number one in its review of 2010 dramas)

“Haechi” (historical backgrounders)

“Chinilpa” (mini history lesson from "Chicago Typewriter")

Historical paintings depicted in "Saimdang, Light’s Diary"

Historical backgrounders for “The Red Sleeve” (2021) and “Yi San” (2007) with parallels and differences between these dramas

(4) This discussion is rather long and may be a bit boring for those of you who don’t like history. If you got tired reading this discussion, you can energize yourself by listening to Band-Maid’s performances during their 2022 USA tour. Band-Maid is an all-female Japanese band that mixes genres such as rock (hard, progressive, punk), metal, pop, jazz, and blues. Listen for example to “Freedom" (anthem; watch out for the drum solo); “Daydreaming" (power ballad; watch out for the lead guitar solo); “Wonderland” (rock-jazz-blues).
submitted by plainenglish2 to KDRAMA [link] [comments]

2023.03.25 10:43 Powerful-Pilot411 Why is HOI4’s map so badly scaled?

Why is HOI4’s map so badly scaled? submitted by Powerful-Pilot411 to hoi4 [link] [comments]

2023.03.25 08:55 Inkblot9 Division I men's tournament thread, Mar 25–29

Updated SGSRS ratings

Battle At Rum Pointe

Seahawk Intercollegiate

Craft Farms Intercollegiate

The Hootie

Aggie Invitational

The Big Texan

Don Benbow Butler Spring Invitational

Duck Invitational

Golden Horseshoe Intercollegiate

UC San Diego Invitational

Valspar Collegiate Invitational

Golfweek/Any Given Tuesday Intercollegiate

submitted by Inkblot9 to collegegolf [link] [comments]

2023.03.25 06:15 thatferrybroad If you had to move from Texas to any of the contiguous states, where would you go? Also, does anyone wanna join the caravan and share a Uhaul? lolol

My and my partner's roommates that we sublet from dropped a bombshell on us that they're moving out at the end of April. We wanted to move out of Texas ASAP given how everything's been going politically, but we would have preferred a little more wiggle room than we're getting. We're taking this for an opportunity and we're washing our hands of this place given how hostile this shitstick town has been to us any time we ventured outside- and that was just with adhering to COVID masking. I haven't held my partner's hand in public in a long, long time.
More to my point, aside from asking general opinions on where to go, I wanted to ask everyone here if either they or someone they know is also planning on burning rubber out of the south. Truth be told we might end up selling all our bulky furniture and shipping the rest, but anything is possible at this point.
Due to having friends in all these locations as opposed to the zero support network here or just genuinely liking it there, I and my partner are eyeing:
Where would YOU go as fellow LGBTQI+ people?
submitted by thatferrybroad to lgbt [link] [comments]

2023.03.25 05:00 asaharyev Matchday Thread 3/25

Major League Soccer

MLS 360 Stream
MLS 360 Event Thread
Home Away Time TV Match Thread
Portland Timbers Los Angeles Galaxy 4:55 PM FOX/Apple TV Free Match Thread
DC United New England Revolution 7:39 PM Apple TV Free Match Thread
Inter Miami CF Chicago Fire FC 7:39 PM Apple TV Free Match Thread
Philadelphia Union Orlando City SC 7:39 PM Apple TV Free Match Thread
Charlotte FC New York Red Bulls 7:39 PM Apple TV Match Thread
Columbus Crew SC Atlanta United FC 7:39 PM Apple TV Match Thread
Nashville SC FC Cincinnati 8:39 PM Apple TV Free Match Thread
Austin FC Colorado Rapids 8:39 PM Apple TV Match Thread
Houston Dynamo FC New York City FC 8:39 PM Apple TV Match Thread
Sporting Kansas City Seattle Sounders FC 8:39 PM Apple TV Match Thread
Minnesota United FC Vancouver Whitecaps FC 8:39 PM Apple TV Match Thread
Real Salt Lake St Louis CITY SC 9:39 PM Apple TV Free Match Thread
Los Angeles FC FC Dallas 10:39 PM Apple TV Match Thread
San Jose Earthquakes Toronto FC 10:39 PM Apple TV Match Thread
Live Updating Comment Stream


Home Away Time TV Match Thread
North Carolina Courage Kansas City Current 2:00 PM Paramount+ Match Thread
San Diego Wave FC Chicago Red Stars 10:00 PM CBSSN Match Thread

CONCACAF Nations League

Home Away Time TV Match Thread
Bermuda Guyana 2:00 PM Paramount+ -
Turks and Caicos Islands US Virgin Islands 3:30 PM Paramount+ -
Sint Maarten Bonaire 4:00 PM Paramount+ -
Montserrat Haiti 5:00 PM Paramount+ -
Martinique Costa Rica 7:00 PM Paramount+ -
Curacao Canada 10:00 PM Paramount+ Match Thread

UEFA Euro Qualifying

Home Away Time TV
🏴󠁧󠁢󠁳󠁣󠁴󠁿Scotland 🇨🇾Cyprus 10:00 AM Fox Soccer Plus
🇦🇲Armenia 🇹🇷Turkey 1:00 PM Fox Soccer Plus

USL Championship

Home Away Time TV
Hartford Athletic Birmingham Legion FC 2:00 PM ESPN+
Louisville City FC El Paso Locomotive FC 3:00 PM ESPN+
Detroit City FC Indy Eleven 4:00 PM ESPN+
Charleston Battery Tampa Bay Rowdies 7:30 PM ESPN+
FC Tulsa Loudoun United FC 8:30 PM ESPN+
San Antonio FC Colorado Springs Switchbacks FC 8:30 PM ESPN+
Oakland Roots SC Memphis 901 FC Postponed -
Orange County SC Las Vegas Lights FC 10:00 PM ESPN+
Sacramento Republic FC San Diego Loyal SC 10:00 PM ESPN+

USL League One

Home Away Time TV
Greenville Triumph SC Richmond Kickers 7:00 PM ESPN+
Chattanooga Red Wolves SC Northern Colorado Hailstorm FC 7:30 PM ESPN+
South Georgia Tormenta FC Charlotte Independence 7:30 PM ESPN+

International Friendly

Home Away Time TV
Germany Peru 3:45 PM Fox Soccer Plus
All Times Eastern
Don’t see a thread for the game you want? Try requesting one from the MatchThreadder bot!
Here is a pre-filled message to the bot.
Bot not working? Here is a guide to making match threads.
submitted by asaharyev to MLS [link] [comments]

2023.03.25 04:04 InVeryHarsh Alternate Timeline: Presidency Of The Kingfish, Huey P. Long(1945-1949)

Alternate Timeline: Presidency Of The Kingfish, Huey P. Long(1945-1949)
Summary of Timeline: Lincoln and Johnson were both assassinated and President Pro Tempore of the Senate Lafayette S. Foster has become president, but a election is being held in Nov 1865
17th Lafayette S. Foster(Republican, 1865-1866)
18th Ulysses S. Grant(Republican, 1866-1873)
19th James G. Blaine(Republican, 1873-1877)
20th Rutherford B. Hayes(Republican, 1877-1881)
21st Ulysses S. Grant(Republican, 1881-1885)
22nd James Garfield(Republican, 1885-1889)
23rd Robert Todd Lincoln(Republican, 1889-1997)
24th William McKinley(Republican, 1897-1902)
25th Theodore Roosevelt(Republican, 1902-1913)
26th William Howard Taft(Republican, 1913-1917)
27th Thomas R. Marshall(Democrat, 1917-1921)
28th Leonard Wood(Republican, 1921-1925)
29th Robert M. La Follette(Republican, 1925-1927)
30th Charles Evans Hughes(Republican, 1927-1933)
31st Franklin D. Roosevelt(Democrat, 1933-1945)
32nd Harry S. Truman(Democrat, 1945-1945)
33rd Huey P. Long(Longist, 1945-1949)

Vice Presidents:
17th Schuyler Colfax(1866-1869)
18th Henry Wilson(1869-1873)
19th Schuyler Colfax(1873-1877)
20th Wiliam Wheeler(1877-1881)
21st Henry W. Blair(1881-1885)
22nd Chester Arthur(1885-1893)
23rd Blanche K. Bruce(1893-1897)
24th Garret Hobart(1897-1899)
25th Theodore Roosevelt(1901-1902)
26th Charles Fairbanks(1905-1909)
27th William Howard Taft(1909-1913)
28th Charles Fairbanks(1913-1917)
29th George E. Chamberlain(1917-1921)
30th Charles Evans Hughes(1921-1927)
31st Herbert Hoover(1929-1933)
32nd John Garner(1933-1941)
33rd Henry Wallace(1941-1945)
33rd Harry S. Truman(1945-1949)

Vice President: Harry S. Truman(1945-1949)
Secretary of State: Robert F. Wagner(1945-1949)
Secretary of the Treasury: Hiram Johnson(1945-1948)
Secretary of WaDefense: Wendell Willkie(1945-1946) Burton K. Wheeler(1946-1949)
Attorney General: Daniel Hoan(1945-1949)
Postmaster General: Walter Lippmann(1945-1949)
Secretary of the Navy: Robert A. Lovett(1945-1949)
Secretary of the Interior: Philip La Follette(1945-1949)
Secretary of Agriculture: Henry Wallace(1945-1949)
Secretary of Commerce: A. Philip Randolph(1945-1949)
Secretary of Labor: David Dubinsky(1945-1949)

President Huey P. Long

Well he finally did it! After nearly 10 years of running the Kingfish has finally made it to the Presidency, cementing himself in history along with the 32 men before him. He has shocked the U.S. political sphere and his supporters have high hopes in the Kingfish and his incredibly progressive domestic policies and hope his isolationist foreign policy will pan out.
Upon entering office on May 20,1945 he immediately had to deal with the war in the Pacific. Despite their great differences he worked with Secretary of War Wendell Willkie in continuing aggressive U.S. policies in the Pacific Theater, working toward the complete and unconditional surrender of Japan. In Europe the war had fortunately finally come to an end with Germany surrendering just days before President Long's inauguration, however he now had to deal with the postwar negotiations which dealt with the postwar borders. In July he would go to the important Potsdam Conference meeting with Prime Minister Clement Attlee, and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. They spoke extensively about what would happen now, former President Truman and former President Roosevelt had already agreed to take a piece of Germany under U.S. control, President Long, a strong isolationist, preferred not to have the territory and asked both France and Britain to take the territory. However, since both countries had been devastated by the war and were recovering, President Long reluctantly decided to keep the territory for now, wanting to keep it out of Soviet hands.
In the Pacific the U.S. had gotten closer and closer to Japan with their island hopping strategy and had greatly increased the firebombing of Japan with the advice of Secretary of War Wendell Willkie. The Empire of Japan was on its knees, but that only caused them to fight even harder and more brutally. President Long at this point had been filled in on the new devastating weapon that had finally developed after years of experimentation, knowing it's destructive power he was at odds with himself, but with Secretary of War Wendell Willkie constantly pestering him to use the bomb to prevent a land invasion of Japan, in August the bombings were approved and over the next few days the cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki were reduced to ash. Along with the Russian invasion of Manchuria, Japan officially unconditionally surrendered in September and was rapidly occupied by the U.S. army. Although he would like to let it go as soon as possible with the country in shambles and with a possible Soviet takeover, President Long decided to keep U.S. troops in the country and began rebuilding the country.
President Long would quickly come into conflict with Secretary of War Wendell Willkie with their differing views on foreign policy, as Willkie supported being greatly involved in Europe to deal with the Soviets, but President Long wants to stay out Europe's problems and has only begrudgingly accepted to take part of Germany under U.S. occupation. Things would escalate with President Long refusing to join the newly formed United Nations something Willkie supported, It would get so bad they would both start hurling personal insults at one another, most of the cabinet supported President Long, but Vice President Harry Truman, who had been mostly kept out of things after being delegated to the vice Presidency supported Willkie. President Long who was furious at this point removed Willkie from the position after nearly 5 years of service, and replaced him with isolationist and progressive Senator Burton K. Wheeler. His refusal to join the UN would also strain relations with the western European states who expected the U.S. to join.
Along with his refusal to join the United Nations, President Long stopped any real U.S. presence in Europe besides continuing trade and holding on to the German territory gained after WW2. With no U.S. real presence, the Western European states had become afraid of the Soviet Union, who had aggressively taken over the Eastern European countries, but if the U.S. owned German territory ever attacked by the Soviets President Long may be forced to intervene militarily lest he'd want public backlash. Western Europe also began slowly rebuilding after the devastating second world war, U.S. trade definitely assisted but despite some calls from people to help Western Europe directly, President Long followed his non-intervention and isolationist policy and decided against it. The Republicans and Democrats have come out in opposition and called for greater U.S. involvement in Europe, especially to oppose the Soviet Union, worrying about a Soviet dominated Europe
President Long also began work toward full Philippine independence which he'd supported with mostly bipartisan support. In 1946 the Philippines had finally become an independent nation recognized by the U.S. with the Treaty of Manila, the Philippines would end up joining the United Nations unlike the U.S.
As he promised he did continue President Roosevelt’s “Good Neighbor” policy and continued to try and make closer ties with other American countries strictly diplomatically, but didn’t really focus on the policy being mostly hands off and letting his allies deal with diplomatic talks.
Back home for the first year of his presidency, he got little to nothing done as Congress was still held by mostly Republicans and Democrats. Along with the economy in question he saw backlash from the public who put some blame on the Kingfish as he was the president. Things would become worse as in May of 1946, despite him personally meeting many union bosses and shutting down multiple railroads, many strikes would occur anyways. It resulted in thousands of freight trains and passenger trains stopping causing anger toward President Long and hurting the economy, he and his socialist allies quickly went back to the union bosses and despite already campaigning on expanding union powers, made multiple guarantees to the unions in greatly expanding their powers and slowly the strikes would stop but damage had been done.
Even with the hurting economy and public anger directed toward President Long the 1946 midterms would be a smashing success for President Long, as the U.S. public overwhelmingly voted in favor of the Longists and Socialists getting them majorities over the Republicans and Democrats in Congress shaking the political field.

1946 U.S. Midterm Elections:
Socialists 29 seats
Longists 28 seats
Republicans 21 seats
Democrats: 18 seats
House of Representatives:
Socialists 118 seats
Longists 123 seats
Republicans 97 seats
Democrats 97 seats

After the dominating performance in the midterms by the Socialists and Longists, they had gained a strong majority over the Republicans and Democrats allowing President Long to try and implement his Share Our Wealth domestic plan especially in the time of economic downturn. President Long would quickly propose the “Kingfish Bill” which would introduce an aggressive progressive tax which would cap personal fortune at $150 million dollars, cap income at $1.5 million dollars, and finally cap inheritance at $7 million dollars(following inflation). However he was stonewalled by the Supreme Court, and despite his two (unspecified) progressive Supreme Court appointments the other justices blocked the legislation. He then vigorously began working toward trying to convince the Supreme Court to try and allow his bill to pass, in the meantime not wanting to be stuck on the issue began working toward other domestic policies he had been proposing.
Another massive piece of legislation that President Long promised and passed is the National Labor Empowerment Act(1946). This act granted unions further powers in their places of employment so that average workers would be protected by the bad practices of business. The bill saw push back mainly for the Republicans and even some Democrats who argued the unions would exploit their newly found increased power which would hurt U.S. business and cause an economic downturn. Laborers obviously sang President Long's praises, chanting “every man is king” during his speeches and whenever he was out in public. During his presidency, as hoped unions further protected average workers from being exploited en masse, they increased wages and improved working conditions, threatening to strike if demands were not met. However there were consequences for giving the unions further power, over his presidency as critics predicted there were cases of unions exploiting their power. There was documented cases of some unions avidly protecting bad workers causing animosity between these unions and the employers, accusations of corruption flew against union bosses who were accused of racketeering and using the unions for personal benefit, and with high demands from unions caused unemployment in certain places harming the already shaky post war economy.
One thing he had promised in his campaign but would immediately prioritize after the massive railroad strike months earlier was the nationalization of the railroad industry even with the economic repercussions. With the massive majority and approval in congress he would create the United States National Railroad Administration(USNRA) effectively nationalizing the nation's railroads and putting them in federal control. The U.S. would buy out multiple companies in the railroad industry, however as expected with the U.S. buyout of these companies the struggling economy would struggle further as debt and inflation continued to increase which angered people outside the railroad industry and unions. President Long came out to quell fears of another big depression saying with the nationalization of the railroads more jobs could be created, and after its nationalization more jobs in the railroad industry were created such as bolstering and creating new railroads which did partly help the struggling economy, and railroad workers were happier with better working conditions with the industry under federal control.
A minor bill in comparison would also be passed, even farmers had recovered from the Great Depression, it didn’t stop President Long from proposing and passing the Federal Agriculture Assistance Act in late 1946, which guaranteed that the president and the federal government would always come to assist struggling farmers through various methods such as subsidies and various other methods of financial assistance. It was easily passed as it saw mostly bipartisan support, and has drawn comparisons to the former AAA which ended in 1942. During his term it had not been needed as farmers had recovered, but just with the acts passing he has gotten in the good graces with the nation's farmers and it is likely they’ll reliably vote for him in 1948. He was even able to convince the capable Henry Wallace to join his administration as Secretary of Agriculture after serving in the position under President Roosevelt.
To gain some popularity with the public and to hopefully allow more workers to be hired to ramp up the economy, President Long passed the Executive Price Controls Act at the end of 1946. Most price controls were unpopular and it was hoped that lifting price controls would allow for more employment, the bill gave President Long the power to institute and remove price controls over many different items. With its passing President Long would remove price controls on a multitude of items, unfortunately the effect would be minimal. Though a number of people would be employed it would not have much of an effect on the economy as it continued to struggle, the public had just gotten angrier and the Republicans and Conservative Democrats accused President Long of increasing the power of the president even further. Even his Socialist allies were also skeptical when passing the bill as the bill gave more power to the president, but as expected longists wholeheartedly supported it, it has led to some minor drifts between the allies.
Now even with the struggling economy he wouldn’t let that stop him from passing more of his domestic legislation. After passing the Executie Price Controls Act(1946), he would draft up and pass the Veterans Pension Act of 1947 guaranteeing WW1 and WW2 veterans a yearly pension with their pension being decided by their individual needs. This act won widespread support from U.S. veterans of both wars who praised the President and it did help veterans who were struggling financially, but it definitely didn’t help the economic situation, only making the majority of people not happy.
Next he would pass his most ambitious bill yet, following his statement on the “war on disease,” the Kingfish would pass the American Healthcare Act of 1947. This bill cemented that the essential healthcare costs including the mental health of Americans would be paid for by the U.S. government in a single payer system but non-essential medical procedures were not covered under the system, the bill saw cheers from the average people who had suffered so greatly from the Great Depression. However some did oppose the bill such as some who feared the system as communist, and conservatives who saw this as additional taxes to pay for a potentially ineffective system. It was put into effect in March of ‘47 and over the course of his presidency millions of Americans were able to get essential healthcare, the government paid for it partly through taxes but to make sure that the taxes could be as small as possible funding also came from other avenues such as tariffs. Despite the current economy President Long's popularity skyrocketed as now the economic burden of healthcare had been lifted from the average American, however he would come into conflict with southerners and his Socialist allies who had preferred another system. President Long’s single payer system still allowed citizens to still get health insurance from private companies separate from the government, the system also contacted a select few private companies to assist the federal government. The Socialists had preferred a system where there would be no reliance on private companies, but Long opposed that and a conversation with Socialist Senate Leader and friend Norman Thomas would get heated. Seeing no way to convince the president and not wanting public backlash most Socialists in Congress said yes to his system. Southerners had a problem with the system due to the fact African American were also allowed to get healthcare, and it had hurt him in the south. Unrelated to the bill above, the Kingfish would also increase the benefits for Social Security by spring, increasing the pension for people aged 65 and up. With the increased benefits to try and pick up the slack President Long did also increase taxes.
So far in the Kingfish’s presidency he had passed historic progressive legislation and had bolstered other legislation, but that damned economy had been a thorn in his side for over a year at this point. But he had a plan to stimulate and recover the economy, he would approach Congress and in a rare show of bipartisanship among the four parties he would pass the National Road Infrastructure Act of 1947. The act created many public works projects to bolster U.S. road infrastructure, mainly expanding the country's highways. When it went into effect in April, millions of Americans would be employed to bolster U.S. road infrastructure, fixing existing roads, creating new roads, and creating bridges and as hoped for it stimulated the ailing economy, and although the economy was not at full strength it had still greatly recovered and President Long’s popularity among the people grew.
Domestically things were now looking up, the public works projects created had jump started the economy and things looked better, but then that pompous fool Senator Joseph McCarthy along with other known figures began loudly speaking about communist infiltration in the U.S. government, even insinuating that President Long’s cabinet and close allies consistent of communists. This caused widespread fear among the American people and Senator McCarthy’s accusations began to hurt President Long’s reputation, Long who was furious at the Senators accusations begrudgingly decided to try and work with the Senator fearing public reaction at condemning the Senator. His Longists allies for the most part wholeheartedly supported him, but his Socialist allies were split as some wanted to condemn the Senator and fight back the accusations while others wanted to work with the Senator to prove that communists had no influence over them. In response to accusations of communist infiltration in the government, in April President Long signed an Executive Order creating the Federal Employees Loyalty Program requiring Federal employees to take loyalty oaths to the U.S. It also began recommending the removal of certain employees. Now the public is still fearful of communist infiltration in the government but the President’s actions did ease the public worry, however the rift between him and the Socialists grew as they opposed the program while he supported it. Some even tried making a bill to stop the Executive Order which angered the President, causing more heated arguments between the Longists and the Socialists.
After partly quelling the fear of communist infiltration in the U.S. government President Long would then begin to work on amending the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. His proposed provisions in the bill would make a 30 hour and four day work the national standard and he would add a guarantee of four weeks of paid vacation for employees. Despite recent conflicts with his Socialist allies, the amendments would pass through Congress easily with joint Longist and Socialist support. The changes would go into effect in July seeing cheers from laborers and many businesses would have to adopt the new standards, during his presidency general employee health and happiness would increase along with certain industries even seeing an increase in productivity, however in some other industries productivity did go down along with employee salary. It would cause conflicts between some Unions and the business in those industries that would eventually be quelled but the calls from conservatives on Union power has been emboldened.
After months of fighting and negotiations with the Supreme Court President Long frustratingly could still not make them budge on his aggressive tax code, although very irritated, President Long instead decided to go for a more average progressive tax, passing the Revenue Act of 1947 taxes on incredibly wealthy would heavily increase but not to the extent President Long had preferred and he reduced taxes for the middle class and the poor. As expected this did see cheers from the average American, the increased taxes on the wealthy was another thing that did help the economy from its slump and it was steadily recovering. The heavily increased taxes on the wealthy would have the consequence of driving some wealthy Americans out to other countries but the effect was minimal.
As the latter half of 1947 had come, President Long began working towards his promises in the education department. Knowing the economy was still recovering and making a big change in the middle of it would hurt it, instead of immediately making higher education completely free, President Long introduced the Education Funding Act of 1947 which increased federal funding of universities all over the United States to reduce the amount students had to pay for their education. President Long has said that free higher education will be implemented in the future, but in the current economy it would not be a wise decision. Still the bill did see cheers from Americans, but conservatives were not pleased with the bill as it still increased government spending especially during this economy. Over his presidency, tuition for university would become cheaper for students all over the country, but as expected this was another thing the Federal Government had to pay for which didn’t help the economy.
As 1948 approached, calls for more internationalist foreign policy came from the Republicans and Democrats and the Soviets were becoming more powerful especially with no direct U.S. presence in Europe besides in West Germany and Berlin. As it would happen the Soviet Union would invade multiple countries such as Greece after taking over Eastern Europe, the Western European states rushed to assist those nations. The nations would greatly increase trade with the U.S. to have the supplies to take on the Soviet forces putting a strain on their post war economies, with these invasions the public increasingly became worried of a Soviet dominated Western Europe. President Long maintained his isolationist policy, saying that he will not allow more U.S. soldiers to die in Europe and that he wanted to stay out of their problems, but he did condemn the Soviets expansionist policy. The Soviets also increasingly supported their communist allies in China assisting them in their takeover of the Chinese government. The U.S. would stay out of the conflict, sticking to just trading and despite French support the existing government was getting pushed out.
During the rest of his presidency he would maintain his progressive policies and continue public works projects on road infrastructure to bolster U.S. infrastructure and to revitalize the economy which had mostly recovered by the end of his first term
View Poll
submitted by InVeryHarsh to Presidentialpoll [link] [comments]

2023.03.24 22:10 B_Secreto_Azteca Despierta tu corazón dormido y encuentra el amor. Con mis amarres poderosos lo lograrás ¡Contáctame hoy!

Despierta tu corazón dormido y encuentra el amor. Con mis amarres poderosos lo lograrás ¡Contáctame hoy!

La existencia puede ser una experiencia asombrosa, pero en ocasiones alguien nos limita y se cierra el sendero hacia el amor y la dicha. En esos instantes, hallar una solución o el amor genuino puede ser complicado. Sin embargo, no te angusties, porque estoy aquí para asistirte a abrir esas puertas. Como el mejor hechicero de la localidad, poseo la capacidad de liberar cualquier puerta clausurada y guiarte hacia la claridad a través de mis Amarres de amor Chicago. Mis rituales son sumamente poderosos, fiables y efectivos.
La práctica de la magia, los conjuros y los amarres ha existido desde tiempos antiguos y se ha utilizado para superar todo tipo de obstáculos. Como el mejor brujo de Chicago, he dedicado mi vida a estudiar los secretos más profundos de la hechicería y cómo usarlos para ayudar a personas en todo el mundo a encontrar el amor verdadero. Mis conjuros y hechizos son altamente efectivos y siempre los realizo con pasión y dedicación, gracias al poder que me otorga La Santa Muerte, mis ancestros y mi experiencia de más de 40 años como el mejor brujo en todo Estados Unidos.
Si estás enfrentando problemas en tu vida, no te preocupes, siempre hay una solución para cada situación. Como el mejor brujo de la ciudad, he ayudado a muchas personas a encontrar el amor verdadero, recuperar la salud y la felicidad perdida. Con mis habilidades mágicas únicas e insuperables, puedo ayudarte a superar cualquier obstáculo que se te presente. Trabajo con cuidado y respeto para ofrecerte la mejor solución posible. Si necesitas ayuda para abrir las puertas que te han sido cerradas, no dudes en contactarme al (+1) (773) 499-6998. No importa cuál sea el problema, mi poder puede hacer que lo imposible sea posible.
La vida puede presentarnos desafíos que parecen insuperables, pero no tienes que enfrentarlos solo. Como el mejor brujo de la ciudad, estoy aquí para guiarte hacia la luz y abrir las puertas que te han sido cerradas al amor verdadero, gracias a mis hechizos de amor Chicago. Con habilidades mágicas únicas y poderosas, siempre trabajo con respeto y cuidado para ayudarte a encontrar tu camino. Si estás buscando ayuda para encontrar la felicidad y el amor que mereces, no dudes en contactarme y juntos abriremos las puertas que te han sido cerradas. Puedes visitarme en mi botánica, ubicada en 2415 South Kedzie, Chicago, IL. ¡No te arrepentirás de elegirme como tu guía en esta búsqueda!
submitted by B_Secreto_Azteca to u/B_Secreto_Azteca [link] [comments]

2023.03.24 20:08 private_liberty The lack of rivalry

I truly believe sport needs rivalry. Those are pationate games amoung rivals and are the most interresting games to watch. Montreal vs Boston was great yesterday despite the fact it was the 1st team vs a bottom team. It was intense and players were very into it. After the game, players also expressed their opinion saying it is lame Montreal and Boston are only playing 3 times this season. I would love to see smaller division and more games within that same divion. That's how I would organize it:

North East division: Toronto / Montreal / Ottawa / Boston.
New-York division: Buffalo / Rangers / Islanders / New-Jersey
East Coast division: Pittsburgh / Philly / Washington / Columbus
South East: Tampa / Florida / Carolina / Dallas
Central East division: Detroit / Chicago / St-Louis / Nashville
Central West division: Winnipeg / Minnesota / Colorado / Arizona
North West division: Calgary / Edmonton / Vancouver / Seattle
California division: San Jose / LA / Anaheim / Las Vegas

I know we cannot make everyone happy. I tried to put as many rival teams togheter. Each division can play 5 or 6 games against each other, and split the rest amoung other teams. You can easily imagine a system of the first of each division makes the playoffs with 8 wild cards.

I just feel the actual system with 8 teams divion is too much and won't create much rivalries. The NHL clearly needs more interresting regular season games.
submitted by private_liberty to hockey [link] [comments]

2023.03.24 18:32 B_Secreto_Azteca Te ayudo a encontrar la felicidad en el amor. Con ayuda de mis hechizos lo conseguirás ¡Llama y te digo cómo!

Te ayudo a encontrar la felicidad en el amor. Con ayuda de mis hechizos lo conseguirás ¡Llama y te digo cómo!

A veces, la vida nos presenta desafíos que nos impiden avanzar. Puede ser una persona en particular que nos cierra las puertas, dejándonos sin opciones y sin esperanza de poder amar de nuevo. Pero no hay que perder la fe, ya que siempre hay alguien que puede ayudarnos a abrir esas puertas. Si estás buscando algunos amarres de amor cerca de mi o quien pueda hacer esto por ti, ¡no busques más! Como el mejor brujo de Chicago, tengo la capacidad de desbloquear todas las puertas al amor que te han sido cerradas.
Mis habilidades mágicas son insuperables. Desde hace años, he ayudado a cientos de personas en Chicago y más allá a superar obstáculos, encontrar amor, recuperar la salud y la felicidad perdida. Mis conjuros y hechizos son poderosos y efectivos, y siempre trabajo con cuidado y respeto. Soy el mejor brujo de la ciudad porque he perfeccionado mi arte durante muchos años, y he aprendido los secretos más profundos y antiguos de la magia con ayuda de #LaSantaMuerte.
No importa qué tipo de problema tengas, estoy seguro de que puedo ayudarte. Tal vez estés buscando ese amor verdadero, o quizás desees deshacerte de una maldición o de un mal de ojo. Tal vez estés experimentando problemas financieros o de salud. Sea cual sea tu situación, puedo ayudarte a encontrar la solución que necesitas. Soy el mejor brujo de Chicago porque siempre tengo éxito en mis trabajos, y nunca dejo que mis clientes se vayan decepcionados.
No esperes más para buscar mi ayuda. Si estás listo para abrir las puertas que te han cerrado, entonces contáctame hoy mismo y te ayudaré con una union de parejas Chicago. Soy el mejor brujo de toda la ciudad y estoy listo para demostrártelo. Juntos, podemos superar cualquier obstáculo y hacer realidad tus sueños más profundos. No dejes que nada te detenga. Llámame al: (+1) (773) 499-6998, y yo te garantizo que te ayudaré a encontrar el camino hacia la felicidad y el éxito. No dudes en visitarme en: 2415 South Kedzie. Chicago, IL
submitted by B_Secreto_Azteca to u/B_Secreto_Azteca [link] [comments]

2023.03.24 18:26 realslimeslikk Not necessarily interested in the marine corps, if it became possible I would go toward the AF. I now continue to get this email frequently that has great amenities to it and becoming an officer after college is something I looked at heavily. Is this too good to be true?

Not necessarily interested in the marine corps, if it became possible I would go toward the AF. I now continue to get this email frequently that has great amenities to it and becoming an officer after college is something I looked at heavily. Is this too good to be true? submitted by realslimeslikk to USMCboot [link] [comments]

2023.03.24 16:29 zman9119 FYI: Lake Michigan Winter Weather Travel Waiver // March 25-26, 2023

submitted by zman9119 to unitedairlines [link] [comments]

2023.03.24 15:47 biggman57 The Last of Us: Part 3 Plot Idea

I just finished replaying the games and couldn't stop thinking about where it could go after 2. I was listening to the X-Ray Vision podcast for Episode 9 of the show and one of their listeners wrote in with the idea that 3 should be about the emergence of Ellie as a leader and her redemption and that got my mind rolling on what that could look like. This is how I think it could go down:

Sorry for the long post but I found the exercise of writing this out really fun. I know whatever Neil comes up with will be far better. Can't come soon enough.
submitted by biggman57 to thelastofus [link] [comments]

2023.03.24 15:21 AdamLikesBeer Weekend Rundown March 24th - 26th

Around Town:





I have had suggestions for a patreon or something of the sort in the past. I do this because I like to provide whatever tiny help I can to the community. BUT I also like to raise money for Gillette's Children Hospital every year. So if you have some virtual loose change you can help me help dem kids here:


Be da real MVP and add anything I missed below.
submitted by AdamLikesBeer to TwinCities [link] [comments]